Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1997)

The following listing is of operas, operettas, musicals and large-scale choral works that are based on myths, legends, folktales and so on or that contain fantasy elements. Space precludes the inclusion of detailed plot synopses or complete character lists. It is assumed that readers will be sufficiently familiar with such legends as Orpheus and Eurydice, Pygmalion, Acis and Galatea and Faust, and with plays such as Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, to require no further explanation. Similarly, many titles are in themselves self-explanatory and are given with no additional gloss. Unless otherwise indicated, "after Aesop" refers to The Fables (see Aesopian Fantasy); "after Apollodorus" refers to the Chronicle, the verse history of Greece after the fall of Troy; "after Apuleius" refers to The Golden Ass; "after Ariosto" refers to Orlando furioso; "after Boccaccio" refers to The Decameron; "after Cervantes" refers to Don Quixote; "after Euripides" refers to Trojan Women; "after Goethe" refers to Faust: A Tragedy; "after Homer" refers to The Odyssey; "after Musäus" refers to Volksmärchen der Deutschen; "after Ovid" refers to Metamorphoses; "after Perrault " refers to Histoires et contes du temps passeé: Contes de ma mère l'oye; "after Plutarch" refers to Bioi Paralleloi ["Parallel Lives"]; "after Tasso" refers to Gerusalemme liberata ["Jerusalem Delivered"] (1580-1581) by Torquato Tasso; and "after Virgil" refers to the Aeneid.

Peri, Jacopo (Italy 1561-1633) La Dafne ["Daphne"] (1598; rev 1598-1600). Libretto Ottavio Rinuccini, after Ovid. Apollo, Venus, Cupid, Daphne, dragon, nymphs, Ovid. L'Euridice ["Eurydice"] (1600). Libretto Ottavio Rinuccini, after La favola d'Orfeo by Angelo Poliziano, after Ovid.

Caccini, Giulio (Italy circa 1550-1618) Il rapimento di Cefalo ["The Apotheosis of Cephalus"] (1600). Libretto Gabriello Chiabrera, after Ovid. Aurora, Apollo, Cupid, Diana (Cynthia), Mercury, Jupiter, Night, Sleep, Death, whale, crescent moon, flying chariot, gods and goddesses, signs of zodiac, Apollo, Muses, Poetry, winged horse (Pegasus), Fame, cities subject to Florence. L'Euridice ["Eurydice"] (1602). Libretto Ottavio Rinuccini, after La favola d'Orfeo by Angelo Poliziano, after Ovid.

Cavalieri, Emilio de' (Italy circa 1550-1602) La rappresentatione di anima, e di corpo ["The Representation of the Soul and the Body"] (1600). Libretto Padre Agostino Manni with Dorisio Isorelli. Guardian Angel, Soul, Body, Time, Intellect, Counsel, Worldly Life, Pleasure, Deadly Sins, Prudence, Insight, angels, blessed souls, damned souls.

Monteverdi, Claudio (Italy 1567-1643) La favola d'Orfeo ["The Story of Orpheus"] (1607). Libretto Alessandro Striggio, after L'Euridice by Ottavio Rinuccini, after La favola d'Orfeo by Angelo Poliziano, after Ovid. L'Arianna ["Ariadne"] (1608). Libretto Ottavio Rinuccini, after Ovid. Venus, Cupid, Bacchus, Jupiter, Ariadne (transformed into a star constellation), Apollo. Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria ["The Return of Ulysses/Odysseus"] (1640). Libretto Giacomo Badoaro, after Homer. Neptune, Jupiter, Minerva, Juno, celestial spirits, naiads, nereids, sirens, Human Frailty, Time, Fortune, Cupid. L'incoronazione di Poppea ["The Coronation of Poppea"] (1643). Libretto Giovanni Francesco Busenello, after Annals et al. by Tacitus. Athena, Mercury, Cupid, Venus, Fortune, Virtue, Cupid.

Gagliano, Marco da (Italy 1582-1643) La Dafne ["Daphne"] (1608). Libretto Ottavio Rinuccini, after Ovid. Apollo, Venus, Cupid, nymphs (including Daphne, transformed into a laurel tree), dragon, Ovid. La Flora, ovvero Il natal de' fiori ["Flora, or The Birth of Flowers"] (1628). Libretto Andrea Salvadori. Zephyrus, Cupid, Venus, Mercury, Pluto, Apollo, Pan, nymphs, tritons, gods, Muses, Jealousy, storms, sea nymphs, wood nymphs, satyrs, cupids, winds, breezes, Jupiter. Tears of joy create flowers.

Landi, Stefano (Italy 1587-1639) La morte d'Orfeo ["The Death of Orpheus"] (?1619). Libretto Francesco Pona (attrib), after Orphic myths. Eurydice's spirit denies knowing Orpheus, he becomes a demi-god.

Caccini, Francesca ["La Cecchina"] (Italy ?1587-circa 1640) La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina ["The Rescue of Ruggiero from the Island of Alcina"] (1626). Libretto Ferdinando Saracinelli, after Ariosto. Sorceress (Alcina), siren, Neptune. Men on a magic island, transformed into plants and trees, are changed back.

Lawes, Henry (England 1596-1662) Comus (1634). Libretto John Milton. Comus (god of pleasure), spirit, nymph.

Cavalli, Pietro Francesco [Pier Francesco Caletti-Bruni] (Italy 1602-1676) Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo ["The Marriage of Thetis and Peleus"] (1639). Libretto Orazio Persiani, after Ovid. Thetis, Jupiter, Aeolus, Pluto, Mercury, Cupid, Juno, Hymen, Discord (Eris), Momus (Ridicule), gods, tritons, demons, nymphs. Gli amori d'Apollo e di Dafne ["The Loves of Apollo and Daphne"] (1640). Libretto Giovanni Francesco Busenello, after Ovid. Jupiter, Venus, Cupid, Apollo, Aurora, Tithonus, Pan, Peneius (river god), Daphne (transformed into a laurel tree), nymphs, faun, Somnus, Morpheus. La Didone ["Dido"] (1641). Libretto Giovanni Francesco Busenello, after Virgil. Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Mercury, Venus, Cupid, Aeolus, Fortune, ghosts, Iris. L'Egisto (1643). Libretto not known. Night, Dawn, Venus, Cupid, Hours. L'Ormindo ["Ormindo"] (1644). Libretto Giovanni Faustini. Cupid, Destiny, Harmony, winds, ghost. Il Giasone ["Jason"] (1649). Libretto Giacinto Andrea Cicognini, after Argonautica by Apollonius of Rhodes. Cupid, Jupiter, Aeolus (Pluto), Zephyrus, Hercules, sorceress (Medea), demon, monsters, giant bull, golden fleece, magic ring, spirits, gods, demons, winds, Apollo, Cupid. La Calisto ["Callisto"] (1651). Libretto Giovanni Faustini, after Ovid. Jupiter, Mercury, Diana, Juno, Pan, Echo, satyrs, sylvan, nymph (Callisto, transformed into a bear, then into Ursa Minor), wood creatures, Furies, heavenly spirits, Nature, Eternity, Destiny. L'Ercole amante ["Hercules in Love"] (1662). Libretto Francesco Buti, after Ovid. Juno, Venus, Neptune, Mercury, Somnus, Hercules, Beauty, ghosts, Graces, nymphs, zephyrs, monsters, Diana (Cynthia), Hercules, Hebe, Female Purity.

Rossi, Luigi (Italy ?1597-1653) L'Orfeo ["Orpheus"] (1647). Libretto Francesco Buti, after Ovid.

Cesti, Pietro Antonio (Italy 1623-1669) L'Orontea ["Orontea"] (1649 or 1656). Libretto Giovanni Filippo Apolloni, after Giacinto Andrea Cicognini. Cupid, Philosophy. Il pomo d'oro ["The Golden Apple"] (1668). Libretto Francesco Sbarra, after Euripides. Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Persephone, Bacchus, Mars, Apollo, Mercury, Juno, Athena, Venus, Diana, Hebe, Cupid, Hymen, Discord, Momus, Charon, Aeolus, winds (Auster, Eurus, Volturnus, Zephyrus), Graces, Furies, nymph (Oenone), Ganymede, dragons, Glory of Austria, Fire, winds, cupids, spirits of the air, Knights of the Earth, tritons, Ideal Beauty, Spain, Italy, Sardinia, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Bohemia, Austrian Crown Lands (Imperio), America, German Empire, gods and goddesses.

Locke, Matthew (England circa 1622-1677) Cupid and Death (1653). Libretto James Shirley, after Aesop. Cupid, Mercury, Death, Despair, Nature, Elysium, Folly, Madness, Despair, satyr, spirits, apes. The arrows of Cupid and Death are mischievously interchanged. The Tempest, or The Enchanted Island (1667). Libretto Thomas Shadwell, after William Davenant and John Dryden, after William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), Ariel, Neptune, Amphitrite, Oceanus, Aeolus, Tethys, Pride, Fraud, Rapine, Murder, devils, spirits, tritons, nereids. Orpheus and Euridice (1673). Libretto Elkanah Settle, after Ovid. Psyche (1675). Libretto Thomas Shadwell, after Psyché by Thomas Corneille and Philippe Quinault, after Molière, after Apuleius. Cupid, Venus, Apollo, Jupiter, Vulcan, Mars, Pan, Pluto, Persephone, Minos, Aeacus, Rhadamanthus, Bacchus, Zephyrus, river god, water nymphs, Furies, zephyrs, cyclops, ghosts, devils, Elysian lovers, Envy, Ambition, Power, Plenty, Peace, gods and goddesses, infernal spirits, devils, nymphs, dryads, sylvans, naiads, cupids, echoes. Jupiter makes Psyche immortal.

Legrenzi, Giovanni (Italy 1626-1690) Il Giustino ["Justin"] (1683). Libretto Count Niccolò Beregan, after Anekdota by Procopius. Giant (Atlas), sea monsters.

Lully, Jean-Baptiste [Giovanni Battista Lulli] (Italy-France 1632-1687) Les fêtes de l'Amour et de Bacchus ["The Festivities of Cupid and Bacchus"] (1672). Libretto Philippe Quinault, Isaac de Benserade and Président de Périgny, after Molière. Cupid, Bacchus. Cadmus et Hermione ["Cadmus and Hermione"] (1673). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Mars, Athena, Jupiter, Juno, Venus, Apollo, Cupid, Hymen, giants turned to stone, golden statues, dragon, Envy, serpent (Python). Sown dragon's teeth grow into warriors. Alceste ou Le triomphe d'Alcide ["Alcestis, or The Triumph of Alcides"] (1674). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Alcestis by Euripides. Aeolus, Apollo, Thetis, Diana, Hercules, Charon, Pluto, Persephone, Alecto, tritons, Cerberus (including barking chorus), nymphs, naiads, sea sprites, ghosts, Muses, winds, flying creatures, Glory, Nymph of the Marne, Nymph of the Seine, Nymph of the Sea, Nymph of the Tuileries. Hercules (Alcides) brings Alcestis back from Hades. Thésée ["Theseus"] (1675). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Sorceress (Medea), Minerva, winged dragons pulling chariot, nymphs, cupids, demons, Venus, Mars, Ceres (Demeter), Bacchus. Atys (1676.) Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Fasti by Ovid. Cybele (fertility goddess), Somnus, Morpheus, Phantasy, Alecto (Fury), nymphs, Atys (transformed into a pine tree), zephyrs, spirits, good and bad dreams, Iris, Time, Flora (Spring), Melpomene. Isis (1677). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Mercury, Jupiter, Juno, Iris, Hebe, nymph Io (transformed into Egyptian goddess Isis), man changed into a bird, Argus (100-eyed watchman), Fates, nymphs, satyrs, naiads, Furies, shivering people, spirits, Fame, Neptune, Apollo, tritons, Muses, Arts, Pan, nymph Syrinx (transformed into reeds from which Pan made panpipes). Psyché ["Psyche"] (1678). Libretto Thomas Corneille and Philippe Quinault, after Molière, after Apuleius. Cupid, river god, water nymphs. Bellérophon ["Bellerophon"] (1679). Libretto Thomas Corneille and Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, after Philippe Quinault, after Theogony by Hesiod. Apollo, Athena, Neptune, magician, monster (Chimera), winged horse (Pegasus), magicians, Apollo, Bacchus, Pan. Proserpine ["Persephone"] (1680). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Persephone, Ceres (Demeter), Pluto, Jupiter, Mercury, Alpheius, Arethusa, Discord, War, Peace, Discord, Peace, Abundance, Games, Pleasures, Victory, heroes. Persée ["Perseus"] (1682). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Gorgon (Medusa), monsters, gods. Phaëton ou La volonté de briller ["Phaethon, or The Desire to Shine"] (1683). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Apollo, earth goddess, Proteus (self-transformations into lion, tree, sea monster, fountain, flames), Isis, Jupiter, Triton, Autumn, Hours of the Day, flying chariot, ghosts, Furies, the Seasons, Hours of the Day, Astraia, Saturn. Amadis de Gaule ["Amadis of Gaul"] (1684). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Amadis de Gaula by García Rodríguez de Montalvo. Benevolent magician, malevolent magician, benevolent sorceress, malevolent sorceress, nymphs, ghosts, monster, demons, good and evil spirits, sorceress. Roland (1685). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Ariosto. Fairy, magic ring (conferring invisibility), magic fountain of love, cupids, sirens, river gods, sylvans, fairies, ghosts of dead heroes, Fairy King, Glory, Fame, Terror, genies. Armide (et Renaud) ["Armida (and Rinaldo)"] (1686). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), Hatred, naiad, demons, winged dragons pulling chariot, monsters, nymphs, Furies, demons, spirits, ghosts, Hatred and followers, Glory, Wisdom. Acis et Galatée ["Acis and Galatea"] (1686). Libretto Jean Galbert de Campistron, after Ovid.

Sartorio, Antonio (Italy 1630-1680) L'Orfeo ["Orpheus"] (1672). Libretto Aurelio Aureli, after Ovid.

Stradella, Alessandro (Italy 1639-1682) San Giovanni Battista ["St John the Baptist"] (1675). Libretto Girardo Ansaldi, after the Bible. Pluto, Persephone, Betrayal, Vengeance, magician, St Paul, Modesty, Luxury. Story of Salome.

Charpentier, Marc-Antoine (France circa 1645-1704) Les plaisirs de Versailles ["The Pleasures of Versailles"] (1682). Libretto anon. Music, Conversation, Comus (god of pleasure), Le Jeu "The Game", Pleasures. Actéon ["Actaeon"] (?1683; rev 1685 as Actéon changé en biche ["Actaeon Changed into a Stag"]). Libretto anon, after Ovid. Juno, Jupiter, Diana, Actaeon (transformed into a stag), nymphs. La descente d'Orphée aux enfers ["The Descent of Orpheus to the Underworld"] (?1685). Libretto anon, after Ovid. La couronne de fleurs ["The Crown of Flowers"] (1685). Libretto anon, after Le malade imaginaire by Molière. Flora, Pan. Les arts florissants ["The Flourishing Arts"] (1686). Libretto anon. Music, Poetry, Painting, Architecture, Peace, Discord, Furies. David et Jonathas ["David and Jonathan"] (1688). Libretto Père François de Paule Bretonneau, after the Bible (I Samuel 28). Witch of Endor (la Pythonisse) summons up spirit of the prophet Samuel. Médée ["Medea"] (1693). Libretto Thomas Corneille, after Pierre Corneille, after Seneca, after Medea by Euripides. Sorceress (Medea), Jealousy, Vengeance, Cupid, demons, winged dragons pulling chariot, spirits, Victory, Glory, Bellona (war goddess).

Blow, John (England 1649-1708) Venus and Adonis (?1684). Libretto anon, after William Shakespeare, after Ovid. Venus, Cupid, cupids, Graces.

Steffani, Agostino (Italy 1654-1728) Niobe, regina di Tebe ["Niobe, Queen of Thebes"] (1688). Libretto Luigi Orlandi, after Ovid. Magician, Apollo, Artemis, Tiresias, Niobe (turned to stone), Shapeshifting monster, winged dragons, spirits, monsters. The walls of Thebes are destroyed by magic and restored by Zeus.

Purcell, Henry (England 1659-1695) Dido and Aeneas (circa 1683 or 1689). Libretto Nahum Tate, after his Brutus of Alba, after Virgil. Sorceress, witches, spirit (as Mercury), Furies, will-o'-the-wisp, cupids, Phoebus, Venus, Spring, nereids, tritons, nymphs. The Prophetess, or The History of Dioclesian (1690). Libretto Thomas Betterton, after John Fletcher and Philip Massinger. Silvanus, Flora, Pomona, river gods, heroes, Graces, Pleasures, fauns, nymphs, Furies, butterflies, Cupid, Bacchus. King Arthur, or The British Worthy (1691). Libretto John Dryden. Good magician (Merlin), evil magician, air spirit, earth spirit, Cupid, Cold Genius, sirens, nymphs, winged dragons pulling chariot, magic potion, magic forest, air spirits, cold spirits, sylvans, Aeolus, Britannia, Pan, Comus (god of pleasure), Venus, Honour, winds, tritons, nereids. (Arthur and Merlin are the only characters from the Arthurian legend.) The Fairy Queen (1692). Libretto anon (?Thomas Betterton or Elkanah Settle), after A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare. Oberon, Titania, Puck, Juno, Hymen, fairies, nymph, elves, satyrs, monkeys, Night, Mystery, Secrecy, Sleep, Phoebus, the Seasons, swans, followers of Night, Green Men. Timon of Athens (1694). Libretto Thomas Shadwell, after William Shakespeare, after Plutarch, after Lucian. Timon, Cupid, Bacchus, nymphs. The Indian Queen (1695). Libretto anon, after John Dryden and Sir Robert Howard. Magician, God of Dreams, spirits, Hymen, Cupid, Fame, Envy, followers of Envy.

Marais, Marin (France 1656-1728) Ariane et Bacchus ["Ariadne and Bacchus"] (1696). Libretto Saint-Jean, after Ovid. Bacchus, Ariadne (transformed into a star constellation). Alcyone (1706). Libretto Antoine Houdar de la Motte, after Ovid. Neptune, Somnus, magicians, sorceresses, zephyrs, dreams, sea gods, Pan, Apollo, Mount Tmolus, Muses, fauns, dryads, river gods, naiads. Sémélé ["Semele"] (1709). Libretto Antoine Houdar de la Motte, after Ovid. Jupiter, Juno, Somnus, Morpheus, Apollo, Cupid, Iris, Pan, Arcadia.

Campra, André (France 1660-1744) L'Europe galante ["Amorous Europe"] (1697). Libretto Antoine Houdar de la Motte. Venus, Discord. Le carnaval de Venise ["The Carnival of Venice"] (1699). Libretto Jean-François Regnard, after Ovid. Tancrède ["Tancredi"] (1702). Libretto Antoine Danchet, after Tasso. 4 magicians, dryads, wood nymph, enchanted forest, Peace, Vengeance, demons, naiads, fauns. Les Muses ["The Muses"] (1703). Libretto Antoine Danchet. Muses. Les fêtes vénitiennes ["Venetian Festivities"] (1710). Libretto Antoine Danchet. Cupid, Fortune, zephyrs, Carnival, Folly, Reason. Idoménée ["Idomeneo"] (1712). Libretto Antoine Danchet, after Idomenée by Prosper de Crébillon père, after Greek legend. Venus, Aeolus, Neptune, Jealousy, Nemesis, sea monster. Les amours des Vénus et de Mars ["The Loves of Venus and Mars"] (1712). Libretto Antoine Danchet.

Keiser, Reinhard (Germany 1674-1739) Der geliebter Adonis ["The Beloved Adonis"] (1697). Libretto Christian Heinrich Postel, after Ovid. Venus, Mars, Adonis (transformed into red roses). Die sterbende Eurydice oder Orpheus erster Theil ["The Dying Eurydice, or Orpheus Part One"] (1702). Libretto Friedrich Christian Bressand, after Ovid. Die verwandelte Leyer des Orpheus oder Orpheus ander Theil ["The Transformed Lyre of Orpheus, or Orpheus Part Two"] (1702). Libretto Friedrich Christian Bressand, after Ovid.

Eccles, John (UK 1668?-1735) The Judgement of Paris (1701). Libretto William Congreve, after Euripides. Juno, Athena, Venus, Mercury. Semele (?1707; premiered 1972). Libretto William Congreve, after Ovid. Jupiter, Juno, Somnus, Morpheus, Apollo, Cupid, Iris, Pan, Arcadia, zephyrs, cupids, nymphs.

Weldon, John (UK 1676-1736) The Judgement of Paris (1701). Libretto William Congreve, after Euripides. Juno, Athena, Venus, Mercury. The Tempest, or The Enchanted Island (?1712). Libretto Thomas Shadwell, after William Davenant and John Dryden, after William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), spirit (Ariel), Amphitrite, Neptune, Aeolus, devils, spirits, winds.

Scarlatti, Domenico (Italy-Spain 1685-1757) Tetide in Sciro ["Thetis on Scyros"] (1712). Libretto Carlo Sigismondo Capece, after Ovid. Thetis, centaur (Chiron). Amor d'un ombra e gelosia d'un aura ["Love of a Shadow and Jealousy of a Spirit"] (1714). Libretto Carlo Sigismondo Capece, after Ovid. Nymph (Echo), breeze (Aura). Echo dies and is brought back to life.

Handel, George Frideric [Händel] (Germany-UK 1685-1759) Agrippina (1709). Libretto Vincenzo Grimani, after Annals by Tacitus and De vitae Caesarum by Suetonius. Juno. Rinaldo (1711; rev 1731). Libretto Giacomo Rossi, after Aaron Hill, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), good magician, sirens, spirits (transformed into furies), winged dragons (pulling chariot), monsters, magic wands, magic garden, mermaids, fairies. Silla ["Sulla"] (?1713). Libretto Giacomo Rossi, probably after Italian libretto, after Plutarch. God (unidentified, in a dream), furies, winged dragons (pulling chariot). Teseo ["Theseus"] (1713). Libretto Nicola Francesco Haym, after Thésée by Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Sorceress (Medea), Minerva, spirits, winged dragons (pulling chariot), monsters. Amadigi di Gaula ["Amadis of Gaul"] (1715). Libretto anon (?Nicola Francesco Haym or Giacomo Rossi), after Amadis de Grèce by Antoine Houdar de la Motte, after Amadis de Gaula by García Rodríguez de Montalvo. Sorceress, ghost, Furies, flying chariot, spirits. Acis and Galatea (1718; rev 1732). Libretto John Gay et al., after Ovid. Admeto, re di Tessaglia ["Admetus, King of Thessaly"] (1727). Libretto anon (?Nicola Francesco Haym or Paolo Antonio Rolli), after L'Alceste by Ortensio Mauro, after Alcestis by Euripides. Alcestis, Hercules, voice of Apollo, underworld spirits. Orlando ["Roland"] (1733). Libretto anon (?Nicola Francesco Haym), after Carlo Sigismondo Capece, after Ariosto. Magician (Zoroaster), spirits. Arianna in Creta ["Ariadne in Crete"] (1734). Libretto anon (?Francis Colman), after Arianna e Teseo by Pietro Pariati, after Apollodorus. Athena, Somnus, minotaur, magic girdle. Terpsicore ["Terpsichore"] (1734). Libretto anon (?Giacomo Rossi). Apollo, Erato, Muses, nymphs, Terpsichore. Alcina (1735). Libretto anon, after L'Isola di Alcina by Antonio Marchi or Antonio Fanzaglia, after Ariosto. Sorceresses (Alcina and her sister), magic ring, magic island, underworld spirits. Men previously transformed into animals are changed back again. Atalanta (1736). Libretto anon, after Lacaccia in Etolia by Belisario Valeriani, after Ovid. Mercury, Graces, cupids. Giustino ["Justin"] (1737). Libretto anon, after Pietro Pariati, after Count Nicolò Beregan, after Anekdota by Procopius. Fortune, unearthly voice, sea monster. Saul (1738). Libretto attributed to Charles Jennens (?or Newburgh Hamilton), after the Bible (I Samuel 28). Witch of Endor summons up spirit of the prophet Samuel. Semele (1744). Libretto attributed to Newburgh Hamilton, after William Congreve, after Ovid. Jupiter, Juno, Somnus, Morpheus, Apollo, Cupid, Iris, Pan, Arcadia, zephyrs, cupids, nymphs. Hercules (1745). Libretto Rev Thomas Broughton, after Giovanni Battista Guarini, after Trachiniae by Sophocles, after Ovid. Hercules, nymphs, Furies.

Albinoni, Tommaso (Italy 1671-1750) Il nascimento de l'Aurora ["The Birth of Aurora"] (?1710). Libretto anon. Apollo, Flora, zephyr.

Vivaldi, Antonio (Italy 1678-1741) Ercole su'l Termodonte ["Hercules at the Thermodon"] (1723). Libretto Giacomo Francesco Bussani, after ?Apollodorus. Il Giustino ["Justin"] (1724). Libretto Pietro Pariati, after Count Nicolò Beregan, after Anedkota by Procopius. Fortune, unearthly voice, sea monster. (See also George Frideric Handel 1737.) Orlando ["Roland"] (1727). Libretto Grazio Braccioli, after Ariosto. Sorceress (Alcina), magic ring, magic island, winged horse. La fida ninfa ["The Faithful Nymph"] (1732; rev 1737 as Il giorno felice ["The Happy Day"], but rev version lost). Libretto Scipione Maffei. Juno, Aeolus, nymph (Licoris).

Fux, Johann Joseph (Austria 1660-1741) Dafne in lauro ["Daphne in the Laurel"] (1714). Libretto Pietro Pariati, after Ovid. Diana, Apollo, Cupid, Mercury, nymph (Daphne, transformed into a laurel tree). Orfeo ed Euridice ["Orpheus and Eurydice"] (1715). Libretto Pietro Pariati, after Ovid. Angelica, vincitrice d'Alcina ["Angelica, Vanquisher of Alcina"] (1716). Libretto Pietro Pariati, after Ariosto. Sorceress (Alcina), Megaera (Fury), sea monster, Furies, spirits, ghosts. Elisa (1719). Libretto Pietro Pariati, after Virgil. Venus, Cupid, Hymen. Elisa = Dido. Psiche ["Psyche"] (1720). Libretto Apostolo Jener, after Apuleius. Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Cupid, Graces, cupids. La corona d'Arianna ["The Crown of Ariadne"] (1726). Libretto Pietro Pariati, after Ovid. Bacchus, Thetis, Ariadne (transformed into a star constellation).

Scarlatti, Alessandro (Italy 1660-1725) Gli equivoci nel sembiante ["Mistaken Identities"] (1679). Libretto Domenico Filippo Contini. Nymphs. Il Telemaco o sia L'isola di Circe ["Telemachus, or The Island of Circe"] (1718). Libretto Carlo Sigismondo Capece, after Homer. Sorceress (Circe), sailors (previously transformed into trees are changed back again), underworld spirits.

Caldara, Antonio (Italy-Austria 1670-1736) Psiche ["Psyche"] (1720). See Johann Joseph Fux 1720. Achille in Sciro ["Achilles on Scyros"] (1736). Libretto Pietro Metastasio, after Ovid. Thetis, centaur (Chiron), Glory, Love, Time.

Telemann, Georg Philipp (Germany 1681-1767) Der geduldige Sokrates ["The Patience of Socrates"] (1721). Libretto Johann Ulrich von König trans of La pazienza di Socrate by Nicolò Minato. Cupid. Orpheus, oder Die wunderbare Beständigkeit der Liebe ["Orpheus, or The Amazing Constancy of Love"] (1726). Libretto Telemann, after Friedrich Christian Bressand, after Ovid.

Marcello, Benedetto (Italy 1686-1739) Arianna ["Ariadne"] (?1727; premiered 1913). Libretto Vincenzo Cassani, after Ovid. Bacchus, Ariadne (transformed into a star constellation), satyrs, fauns.

Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista (Italy 1710-1736) La conversione e morte di San Guglielmo (d'Aquitania) ["The Conversion and Death of St William (of Aquitaine)"] (1731). Libretto Ignazio Mancini. Devil, angel.

Montéclair, Michel Pignolet de (France 1667-1737) Jephté ["Jephthah"] (1732). Libretto Abbé Simon-Joseph Pellegrin, after the Bible. Includes Venus, Apollo.

Arne, Thomas (UK 1710-1778) The Opera of Operas, or Tom Thumb the Great (1733). Libretto Elizabeth Haywood and William Hatchett, after The Tragedy of Tragedies, or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great by Henry Fielding, after folktale. Tom Thumb, ghost. Comus (1738). Libretto John Dalton, after John Milton. Magician, Bacchus, Euphrosyne, Comus (god of pleasure), river goddess, nymphs, spirits, pastoral divinities, naiads. Alfred (1740). Libretto James Thomson and David Mallet. Spirits, nymph. The Judgement of Paris (1742). Libretto William Congreve, after Euripides. Juno, Athena, Venus, Mercury, nymphs.

Lampe, John Frederick [Johann Friedrich] (Germany-UK 1703-1751) The Opera of Operas, or Tom Thumb the Great (1733). Libretto Elizabeth Haywood, after The Tragedy of Tragedies, or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great by Henry Fielding, after folktale. Tom Thumb, ghost. The Dragon of Wantley (1737). Libretto Henry Carey, after English legends. Dragon, sea monster.

Rameau, Jean Philippe (France 1683-1764) Hippolyte et Aricie ["Hippolytus and Aricia"] (1733). Libretto Abbé Simon-Joseph Pellegrin, after Phèdre by Jean Racine, after Phaedra by Seneca, after Hippolytus by Euripides. Diana, Mercury, Neptune, Pluto, Fates, Tisiphone (Fury), sea monster, nymphs, underworld gods, Furies, zephyrs, Cupid, Jupiter. Les victoires galantes ["The Amorous Victories"] (1735; rev 1736 as Les Indes galantes ["The Amorous Indies"]). Libretto Louis Fuzelier. Hebe, Cupid, Bellona (war goddess), cupids, Pleasures, sports. Castor et Pollux ["Castor and Pollux"] (1737). Libretto Pierre-Joseph Bernard, after Greek legend. Jupiter, Cupid, Mercury, Hebe, a Pleasure, ghost, Castor and Pollux (transformed into stars), Arts, Pleasures, Celestial Pleasures, demons, blessed spirits, stars, Graces, Arts, Pleasures, cupids, monsters, planets, constellations, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Minerva, Hebe, Cupid. Les fêtes d'Hébé, ou Les talents lyriques ["The Festivities of Hebe, or The Lyric Talents"] (1739). Libretto Antoine Gautier de Montdorge with Pierre-Joseph Bernard, Abbé Simon-Joseph Pellegrin, Alexandre Le Riche de la Pouplinière, after Greek legends. Hebe, Cupid, Momus (Ridicule), La Musique, Mercury, Terpsichore, Graces, nymphs of Terpsichore, water nymphs, fauns, sylvans. Dardanus (1739). Libretto Charles-Antoine Le Clerc de la Bruère (rev 1744 with Abbé Simon-Joseph Pellegrin), after Greek legend. Magician, Venus, Neptune, monster, dreams, Pleasure, magic ring, magicians, dreams, cupids, Pleasures, Jealousy, Troubles, Suspicions, Venus, Cupid. La princesse de Navarre ["The Princess of Navarre"] (1745). Libretto Voltaire. The Pyrenees collapse; a Temple of Love arises. Platée ou Junon jalouse ["Plataea, or Juno Jealous"] (1745). Libretto Adrien-Joseph Le Valois d'Orville, after Jacques Autreau, after Description of Greece by Pausanias. Mercury, Juno, Jupiter, marsh nymph (Plataea), Momus (Ridicule), Folly, frogs, satyrs, naiads, maenads, nymphs, aquilons, dryads, Graces, Thespis (inventor of Comedy), Thalia (Comedy), Cupid. Les fêtes de Polymnie ["The Festivities of Polyhymnia"] (1745). Libretto Louis de Cahusac, after Greek legend, historical fact, Middle Eastern legend. Polyhymnia (Lyric Poetry), Arts, Muses, Hercules, Hebe, fairy. Le temple de la Gloire ["The Temple of Glory"] (1745). Libretto Voltaire. Bacchus (as a king), Envy. Les fêtes de l'Hymen et de l'Amour, ou Les dieux d'Egypte ["The Festivities of Hymen and Cupid, or The Egyptian Gods"] (1747). Libretto Louis de Cahusac, after Egyptian legends. Osiris (vegetation god), Canopus (water god), Horus (god of the arts). Zaïs (1748). Libretto Louis de Cahusac. Air spirit (Zaïs), Cupid, magic ring, spirits. Pigmalion ["Pygmalion"] (1748). Libretto Ballot de Sovot, after Antoine Houdar de la Motte, after Ovid. Les surprises de l'Amour ["The Surprises of Cupid"] (1748). Libretto Pierre-Joseph Bernard, after Greek legend. Cupid, magic lyre, Anacreon. Naïs (1749). Libretto Louis de Cahusac, after Greek legend. Neptune, sea nymph (Naïs), Tiresias, gods and goddesses, sea gods and goddesses, nymphs, Jupiter, Pluto, Flora, Titans, giants, zephyrs. Zoroastre ["Zoroaster"] (1749). Libretto Louis de Cahusac. Magician, Vengeance, heavenly voice, spirits, demons. La guirlande, ou Les fleurs enchantées ["The Garland, or The Magic Flowers"] (1751). Libretto Jean François Marmontel. Cupid. Acanthe et Céphise, ou La sympathie ["Acanthus and Cephisa, or Empathy"] (1751). Libretto Jean François Marmontel. Fairy, genie, evil spirits, magic talisman. La naissance d'Osiris, ou la fête Pamilie ["The Birth of Osiris, or The Pamylia Festival"] (1754). Libretto Louis de Cahusac. Jupiter, Osiris. Les nymphs de Diane ["The Nymphs of Diana"] (rev as Zéphyre ["Zephirus"]) (written 1750s; premiered 1967). Libretto anon, after Greek legend. Zephirus, nymph, breezes. Les Paladins ["The Knights Errant"] (1760). Libretto attributed to Duplat de Monticourt, after Le petit chien qui secoue de l'argent et des pierreries by Jean de la Fontaine, after Ariosto. Fairy. Abaris, ou Les Boréades ["Abaris, or The Boreads"] (?1763; premiered 1963). Libretto attributed to Louis de Cahusac, after Greek legend. Boreas (North Wind), Cupid, Polyhymnia (Muse), Apollo, nymph, Pleasures, Graces, Muses, Arts, boreads, winds, Pleasures, zephyrs, winds, hours, the Seasons, Talents, magic talisman.

Hasse, Johann Adolf (Germany 1699-1783) Didone abbandonata ["Dido Abandoned"] (1742). Libretto Pietro Metastasio (1724), after Virgil. Neptune, ghost, Nereids. Alcide al bivio ["Alcides at the Crossroads"] (1760). Libretto Pietro Metastasio, after Memorabilia by Xenophon, after Horai by Prodicus of Ceos. Hercules (Alcides), Iris, Pleasure, Virtue. Egeria (1764). Libretto Pietro Metastasio, after ?Ovid. Venus, Mars, Apollo, nymph (Egeria, transformed into a spring).

Jommelli, Niccolò (Italy 1714-1774) Semiramide riconosciuta ["Semiramis Revealed"] (1742). Libretto Pietro Metastasio (1729), after Middle Eastern legend. Jupiter, Iris. Didone abbandonata ["Dido Abandoned"] (1747). Libretto Pietro Metastasio (1724), after Virgil. Neptune, ghost, Nereids. Fetonte ["Phaethon"] (1753). Libretto Mattia Verazi, after Philippe Quinault, after Ovid. Thetis, Fortune, Proteus, Sun god, flying chariot, tritons, river gods. Armida abbandonata ["Armida Abandoned"] (1770). Libretto Francesco Saverio de Rogatis, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), winged dragons pulling chariot, monsters.

Leclair, Jean Marie (l'Aîné) (France 1697-1764) Scylla et Glaucus ["Scylla and Glaucus"] (1746). Libretto D'Albaret, after Ovid. Sorceress (Circe), Hecate, nymph (Scylla, transformed into a dangerous rock in the sea), dryads, wood gods, nymphs, demons, Venus, Cupid, Spartan women (turned to stone).

Boyce, William (UK 1711-1779) Peleus and Thetis (1740 or 1747). Libretto from The Jew of Venice by George Granville, Lord Lansdowne, after The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare, after Ovid, after Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus. Prometheus, Jupiter, Thetis, vulture. The Secular Masque (?1749). Libretto John Dryden, after Greek legend. Janus, Chronos, Momus, Diana, Mars, Venus, nymphs. The Tempest (1757). Libretto David Garrick, after William Shakespeare. Prospero, Ariel, Ceres (Demeter), Hymen.

Gluck, Christoph Willibald (Germany-Austria 1714-1787) Le nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe ["The Marriage of Hercules and Hebe"] (1747). Libretto anon, after Greek legend. Jupiter, Juno, Hercules, Hebe. L'île de Merlin ou Le monde renversé ["Merlin's Island, or The World Turned Upside Down"] (1758). Libretto Louis Anseaume, after Le Monde renversé by Alain René Le Sage and d'Orneval. Magician (Merlin), Pierrot, Scapino, magic island. L'ivrogne corrigé, ou Le mariage du diable ["The Reformed Drunkard, or The Devil's Marriage"] (1760). Libretto Charles-Simon Favart, after Louis Anseaume and J B Lourdet de Sarterre. Pluto, furies, devils. Tetide ["Thetis"] (1760). Libretto Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca, after Greek legend. Thetis, Mars, Apollo, Athena, Venus, Hymen. Orfeo ed Euridice ["Orpheus and Eurydice"] (1762). Libretto Ranieri de' Calzabigi, after Ovid. Il Parnaso confuso ["Parnassus in Turmoil"] (1765). Libretto Pietro Metastasio. Apollo, Melpomene, Erato, Euterpe, Muses. Il Telemaco o sia L'isola di Circe ["Telemachus, or The Island of Circe"] (1765). Libretto Marco Coltellini, after Carlo Sigismondo Capece, after Homer. Sorceress (Circe), sailors, underworld spirits. Sailors previously transformed into trees are changed back again. Alceste ["Alcestis"] (1767). Libretto Ranieri de' Calzabigi, after Alcestis by Euripides. Hercules, Thanatos, Apollo, underworld gods. Paridi ed Elena ["Paris and Helen"] (1770). Libretto Ranieri de' Calzabigi, after Greek legend. Cupid, Athena. Iphigénie en Aulide ["Iphigenia in Aulis"] (1774). Libretto François Le Blanc du Roullet, after Iphigénie by Jean Racine, after Euripides. Diana. Armide ["Armida"] (1777). Libretto Philippe Quinault, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), Fury of Hate, demons, naiad, monsters, nymphs, Furies, spirits. Iphigénie en Tauride ["Iphigenia in Tauris"] (1779). Libretto Nicolas-François Guillard, after Claude Guimond de la Touche, after Euripides. Diana, ghost, Furies (Eumenides), demons. Echo et Narcisse ["Echo and Narcissus"] (1779). Libretto Baron Louis de Tschudi, after Ovid. Cupid, nymphs, zephyrs, sylvans. The nymph Echo dies and is brought back to life.

Graun, Carl Heinrich (Germany, circa 1704-1759) L'Armida (1751). Libretto Leopoldo de Villati, after Philippe Quinault, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), demons, nymphs. L'Orfeo ["Orpheus"] (1752). Libretto Leopoldo de Villati, after M. du Boulier (?Boulai), after Ovid.

Haydn, Franz Joseph (Austria 1732-1809) Der krumme Teufel ["The Crooked Devil"] (1751). Libretto Joseph Kurz, after Le diable boiteux by F C Dancourt. Harlequin, devil, magician. Asmodeus, der krumme Teufel (Der neue krumme Teufel) ["Asmodeus, The Crooked Devil (The New Crooked Devil)"] (?1758). Libretto Joseph Kurz. (Music lost; possibly a revised version of Der krumme Teufel.) Hexenschabbas ["The Witches' Sabbath"] (?1773). Libretto anon. Opera lost. Philemon und Baucis, oder Jupiters Reise auf die Erde ["Philemon and Baucis, or Jupiter's Journey to Earth"] (1773). Libretto anon, after Gottlieb Konrad Pfeffel, after Ovid. Jupiter, Mercury, nymphs, Hungarian Nation, Love of the Fatherland, Obedience, Devotion, Fidelity. Il mondo della luna ["The World on the Moon"] (1777). Libretto Polisseno Fegajo Pastor, after Carlo Goldoni. A rich man, drugged by "magic potion", is convinced he is on the moon. Die Feuersbrunst ["The Conflagration"] (1777). Libretto anon. Ghost. La fedeltà premiata ["Fidelity Rewarded"] (1781). Libretto Haydn with anon, after L'infedeltà fidele by Giovanni Battista Lorenzi. Diana, wood nymph, sea monster, curse, nymphs, satyrs. Orlando paladino ["Knight Roland"] (1782). Libretto Nunziato Porta, after Ariosto. Sorceress (Alcina), Charon, Orlando (temporarily turned to stone), nymphs, monsters. Armida (1784). Libretto Nunziato Porta, after Rinaldo anon, after Giovanni Bertati, Jacopo Durandi and Francesco Saverio de Rogatis, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), nymphs, underworld spirits, Furies. L'anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice ["The Philosopher's Spirit, or Orpheus and Eurydice"] (?1791; premiered 1951). Libretto Carlo Francesco Badini, after Ovid. Eurydice remains in Hades.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (Switzerland-France 1712-1778) Le devin du village ["The Village Soothsayer"] (1752). Libretto Rousseau.

Mondonville, Jean-Joseph (France 1711-1772) Titon et l'Aurore ["Tithonus and Aurora"] (1753). Libretto Abbé Voisenon and Abbé Savarre, after Greek legend. Cupid, Prometheus, Aeolus, Aurora (Dawn), nymph.

Traetta, Tommaso (Italy 1727-1779) Ippolito ed Aricia ["Hippolytus and Aricia"] (1759). Libretto from Hippolyte et Aricie by Abbé Simon-Joseph Pellegrin, after Phèdre by Jean Racine, after Phaedra by Seneca, after Hippolytus by Euripides. Diana, sea monster, Mercury, Neptune, Pluto, Fates, Tisiphone (Fury), nymphs, underworld gods, Furies, zephyrs, Cupid, Jupiter. Armida (1761). Libretto Giacomo Durazzo and Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca, after Armide by Philippe Quinault, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), winged dragons (pulling chariot), Hatred, naiad, demons, monsters, nymphs, Furies, spirits, ghosts, Glory, Wisdom. Ifigenia en Tauride ["Iphigenia in Tauris"] (1763). Libretto Marco Coltellini, after Euripides. Artemis, ghosts, Furies (Eumenides), demons.

Bach, Johann Christian (Germany-UK 1735-1782) Orione, ossia Diana vendicata ["Orion, or Diana Revenged"] (1763). Libretto Giovanni Gualberto Bottarelli, after Greek legend. Diana, Aurora (Dawn), Orion (transformed into a constellation). Amadis de Gaule ["Amadis of Gaul"] (1779). Libretto Alphonse de Vismes, after Philippe Quinault, after Amadis de Gaula by García Rodríguez de Montalvo. Magician, demon, fairy, Righteousness, Valour, Discord, Lust, Envy, Hate, angels, ghosts, demons.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (Austria 1756-1791) Apollo et Hyacinthus seu Hyacinthi Metamorphosis ["Apollo and Hyacinth, or The Metamorphosis of Hyacinth"] (1767). Libretto Pater Rufinus Widl, after Palaephatos or Lucian or Ovid. Apollo, Hyacinthus (transformed into a flower), Zephyrus (transformed into a wind). Ascanio in Alba ["Ascanius in Alba"] (1771). Libretto Abbate Giuseppe Parini, after Virgil. Venus, nymphs, faun, spirits, Genii, Graces. Lucio Silla ["Lucius Sulla"] (1772). Libretto Giovanni de Gamerra and ?Pietro Metastasio, after Plutarch. Il sogno di Scipione ["Scipio's Dream"] (1772). Libretto Pietro Metastasio (1735), after De republica (Somnium Scipionis) by Cicero. Fortune, Constancy, dead father, dead uncle, dead heroes, Heaven; Licenza. (See also recomposed version by Judith Weir 1991.) Idomeneo, re di Creta ["Idomeneus, King of Crete"] (1781). Libretto Abbate Giambattista Varesco, after Antoine Danchet, after Idomenée by Prosper de Crébillon père, after Greek legend. Neptune, sea monster. Il dissoluto punito, o sia Il Don Giovanni ["The Rake Punished, or Don Juan"] (1787). Libretto Lorenzo da Ponte, after Giovanni Bertati, after El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de pietra by Tirso de Molina (attrib). Statue comes to life and drags Don Juan to Hell. Die Zauberflöte ["The Magic Flute"] (1791). Libretto Emanuel Schikaneder, after Lulu, oder Die Zauberflöte by A J Liebeskind, Sethos by Jean Terrasson et al. Queen of the Night, Genii, dragon, animals, magic flute, magic glockenspiel.

Mysliveek, Josef ["Venatorini"/"Il (divino) boemo"] (Czechoslovakia-Italy 1737-1781) Il Bellerofonte ["Bellerophon"] (1767). Libretto G Bonechi, after Philippe Quinault, after Theogony by Hesiod. Apollo, Athena, Neptune, magician, monster (Chimera), winged horse (Pegasus), magicians.

Paisiello, Giovanni (Italy 1740-1816) L'osteria di Marechiaro ["The Marechiaro Inn"] (?1769). Libretto Francesco Cerlone. Goblin. Don Chisciotte della Mancia ["Don Quixote of La Mancha"] (1769). Libretto Giovanni Battista Lorenzi, after Cervantes. (See also recomposed version by Hans Werner Henze 1976.) Il credulo deluso ["The Credulous Deluded"] (1774). Libretto Carlo Goldoni from Il mondo della luna (1750). A rich man, drugged by "magic potion" is convinced he is on the moon. (Music apparently unrelated to 1783 setting of same libretto; see also Il mondo della luna ["The World on the Moon"] (1777) by Joseph Haydn.) Il Socrate immaginario ["The Imaginary Socrates"] (1775). Libretto Ferdinando Galiani and Giovanni Battista Lorenzi. Il mondo della luna ["The World on the Moon"] (1783). Libretto Carlo Goldoni. A rich man, drugged by "magic potion", is convinced he is on the moon. (See also Il credulo deluso 1774.) Fedra ["Phaedra"] (1788). Libretto Mario (?Luigi) Salvioni, after Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni, ?after Phèdre by Jean Racine, after Phaedra by Seneca, after Hippolytus by Euripides. Mercury, Diana, Pluto, sea monster, underworld gods, wood deities.

Grétry, André-Modeste (Belgium-France 1741-1813) Zémire et Azor ["Zemire and Azor"] (1771). Libretto Jean François Marmontel, after La Belle et la Bête ["Beauty and the Beast"] by Mme J M Leprince de Beaumont, Amour pour amour by Pierre Claude Nivelle de la Chaussée. A prince, previously transformed into a monster, is changed back. Céphale et Procris, ou L'amour conjugale ["Cephalus and Procris, or Married Love"] (1773). Libretto Jean François Marmontel, after Ovid. Diana, Aurora [Dawn], Cronos. Le jugement de Midas ["The Judgement of Midas"] (1778). Libretto Thomas d'Hèle and Louis Anseaume, after Midas by Kane O'Hara, after Ovid. Apollo, Mercury, Pan. Midas receives ass's ears. Amphitryon (1786). Libretto Michel Jean Sedaine, after Molière, after Amphitruo by Plautus. Jupiter, Mercury.

Salieri, Antonio (Italy-Austria 1750-1825) Armida (1771). Libretto anon, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), winged dragons (pulling chariot), monsters, nymphs, Furies, demons. Les Danaïdes ["The Danaïdes"] (1784). Libretto François Le Blanc du Roullet and Baron Louis de Tschudi, after Ranieri de' Calzabigi, after Supplices by Aeschylus. Demons, Furies, serpents. La grotta di Trofonio ["Trofonio's Cave"] (1785). Libretto Giambattista Casti. Magician, magic cave (reverses people's characters), infernal spirits. Falstaff, ossia Le tre burle ["Falstaff, or The Three Practical Jokes"] (1799). Libretto Carlo Prospero Defranceschi, after The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare. Herne the Hunter, Oberon, Titania, elves, spirits.

Sacchini, Antonio (Italy-UK-France 1730-1786) Armida (? e Rinaldo) (1772; rev 1780 as Renaud/Rinaldo). Libretto Jean Joseph Lebout, after Giovanni di Gamorra, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), good magician, siren, mermaids, winged dragons (pulling chariot), magic garden.

Benda, Georg Anton [Jí Antonín] (Czechoslovakia-Germany 1722-1795) Ariadne auf Naxos ["Ariadne on Naxos"] (1775). Libretto Johann Christian Brander, after Ovid. Bacchus, Ariadne (transformed into a star constellation). Medea (1775). Libretto Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter, after Euripides. Sorceress, winged dragons (pulling chariot).

Righini, Vincenzo (Italy 1756-1812) Il convitato di pietra, ossia Il dissoluto punito ["The Stone Guest, or The Rake Punished"] (1777). Libretto anon, after El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de pietra by Tirso de Molina (attrib). A statue comes to life and drags Don Juan to Hell. Alcide al bivio ["Alcides at the Crossroads"] (1790). Libretto Pietro Metastasio, after Memorabilia by Xenophon, after Horai by Prodicus of Ceos. Hercules ("Alcides"), nymphs, Genii.

Piccinni, Niccolò (Italy-France 1728-1800) Roland (1778). Libretto Jean François Marmontel, after Philippe Quinault, after Ariosto. Fairy, magic ring (confers invisibility), enchanted forest, magic fountain of love. Atys (1780). Libretto Jean François Marmontel, after Philippe Quinault, after Fasti by Ovid. Cybele (Fertility Goddess), Somnus, Morpheus, Phantasy, Alecto (Fury), nymphs, spirits, good and bad dreams. Iphigénie en Tauride ["Iphigenia in Tauris"] (1781). Libretto Alphonse de Congé Dubreuil, after Claude Guimond de la Touche, after Euripides. Didon ["Dido"] (1783). Libretto Jean François Marmontel, after Virgil.

Kraus, Joseph Martin (Germany-Sweden 1756-1792) Proserpin ["Persephone"] (1781). Libretto Johan Henrik Kellgren, after Ovid. Jupiter, Pluto, Persephone, Ceres (Demeter), ghost, underworld, gods, nymphs, hellish spirits. Aeneas i Carthago (Dido och Aeneas) ["Aeneas in Carthage (Dido and Aeneas)"] (1799). Libretto Johan Henrik Kellgren, after King Gustav III, after Didon by Jean-Jacques Le Franc (Marquis de Pompignan). Venus, Juno, Jupiter, Honour, gods.

Benda, Friedrich (Germany 1745-1814) Orpheus (1785). Libretto ?H. von L., after Ovid.

Naumann, Johann Gottlieb (Germany 1741-1801) Gustaf Wasa ["Gustav Vasa"] (1786). Libretto Johan Henrik Kellgren. Sweden's guardian angel, ghosts, Athena, Victory, Glory, Conscience, Hatred, Treachery, Revenge, ghosts, genii. Orpheus og Eurydike ["Orpheus and Eurydice"] (1786). Libretto P D Biehl, after Ranieri de' Calzabigi, after Ovid.

Gazzaniga, Giuseppe (Italy 1743-1818) Don Giovanni Tenorio o sia Il convitato di pietra ["Don Juan Tenorio, or The Stone Guest"] (1787). Libretto Giovanni Bertati, after El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de pietra by Tirso de Molina (attrib). A statue comes to life, and demons drag Don Juan to Hell.

Martín y Soler, Vicente (Spain-Russia 1754-1806) L'arbore di Diana ["Diana's Arbour"] (1787). Libretto Lorenzo da Ponte, after Greek legend. Diana, Cupid, nymphs, magic tree, gods, goddesses. A shepherd is transformed into a tree and is changed back again; nymphs and shepherds are transformed into sheep and are changed back again.

Kunzen, Friedrich (Germany-Denmark 1761-1817) Holger Danske ["Ogier the Dane"] (1789). Libretto Jens Baggesen, after Oberon by Christoph Martin Wieland, after Huon de Bordeaux, anon (13th century). Oberon, Titania, Puck, elf, sea nymphs (mermaids), magic horn, magic goblet, spirits.

Storace, Stephen (UK 1762-1796) The Haunted Tower (1789). Libretto James Cobb. (Gothic story; partly lost.)

Wranitzky, Paul [Pavel Vranick?] (Bohemia-Austria 1756-1808) Oberon, König der Elfen ["Oberon, King of the Elves"] (1789). Libretto Carl Ludwig Giesecke and Friederike Sophie Seyler, after Oberon by Christoph Martin Wieland, after Huon de Bordeaux, anon (13th century), A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare. Oberon, Titania, magic horn, magic goblet, nymphs, genii.

Fomin, Yevstigney (Russia 1761-1800) Orfey i Evridika ["Orpheus and Eurydice"] (1792). Libretto Yakov Knyashnin, after Ovid. Eurydice remains in Hades.

Haeffner, Johann Christian Friedrich (Germany-Sweden 1759-1833) Alcides inträde i Världen ["Alcides' Entrance into the World"] (1793). Libretto A N Clewberg-Edelcrantz. Hercules ("Alcides"). Renaud ["Rinaldo"] (1801). Libretto N B Sparrschöld, after Leboeuf et al., after Tasso.

Cherubini, Luigi (Italy-France 1760-1842) Médée ["Medea"] (1797). Libretto François Benoît Hoffmann, after Pierre Corneille, after Seneca, after Euripides. Sorceress (Medea), winged dragons (pulling chariot), Furies. Anacréon, ou L'amour fugitif ["Anacreon, or Fugitive Love"] (1803). Libretto R Mendouze. Venus, Cupid. Pigmalione ["Pygmalion"] (1809). Libretto Stefano Vestris, after Antonio Simcone Sografi, after Pygmalion by Jean Jacques Rousseau, after Ovid. Ali Baba, ou Les quarante voleurs ["Ali Baba, or The Forty Thieves"] (1833). Libretto Eugène Scribe and Mélesville (Anne-Honoré Joseph Duveyrier), after The Thousand and One Nights.

Kauer, Ferdinand (Austria 1751-1831) Das Donauweibchen ["The Danube Sprite"] (1798). Libretto Karl Friedrich Hensler. (Rewritten Russian version, Lyesta, dnyeprovskaya rusalka ["Lesta, the Dnieper Water Sprite"] ?1803 by Styepan Davïdov [?1777-1825].)

Weber, Carl Maria von (Germany 1786-1826) Das Waldmädchen ["The Wood Nymph"] (1800; rev 1808-1810 as Silvana, oder Das Waldmädchen ["Silvana, or The Wood Nymph"]). Libretto Karl von Steinberg (rev Franz Karl Hiemer), after German legend. Rübezahl, oder Der Beherrscher der Geister ["Rübezahl, or The Ruler of the Spirits"] (?1804-5). Libretto J G Rhode, after Musäus. Mountain spirit, magic sceptre, griffin, turnips (transformed into humans), spirits. Der Freischütz ["The Free-Shooter"] (1821). Libretto Johann Friedrich Kind, after Gespensterbuch (Der schwarze Jäger) by Johann August Apel and Friedrich Laun. Devil (the Black Huntsman), magic bullet, ghost, evil spirits. Euryanthe (1823). Libretto Helmine von Chézy, after L'histoire du très noble et chevalereux prince Gérard, comte de Nevers, et de la très vertueuse et très chaste princesse Euriant de Savoye, sa mye, anon (13th century). Serpent, ghost. Oberon, or The Elf-King's Oath (1826). Libretto James Robertson Planché, after Oberon by Christoph Martin Wieland, after Huon de Bordeaux, anon (13th century), A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare. Oberon, Titania, Puck, elf, sea nymph (mermaid), magic horn, magic goblet, spirits.

Isouard, Nicolò (Malta-France 1775-1818) Cendrillon ["Cinderella"] (1810). Libretto Charles Guillaume Etienne, Cendrillon, after Perrault. Magic rose but no fairy godmother. Aladin, ou La lampe merveilleuse ["Aladdin, or The Wonderful Lamp"] (1822). Libretto Charles Guillaume Etienne, after The Arabian Nights. Magic lamp, genie, evil spirits.

Danzi, Franz (Germany 1763-1826) Der Berggeist, oder Schicksal und Treue (Rübezahl) ["The Mountain Spirit, or Destiny and Fidelity (Rübezahl)"] (1813). Libretto ?Carl von Lohbauer, after Musäus.

Mayr, Giovanni Simone [Johann Simon Mayer] (Germany-Italy 1763-1845) Medea in Corinto ["Medea in Corinth"] (1813). Libretto Felice Romani, after Medea by Euripides. Sorceress (Medea), winged dragons (pulling chariot), Furies.

Schubert, Franz (Austria 1797-1828) Der Spiegelritter ["The Looking-Glass Knight"] (?1811-13; premiered 1949). Libretto August von Kotzebue. Good magician, evil magician, giant, dwarf, magic island, dragon, magic mirror. Des Teufels Lustschloß ["The Devil's Pleasure Castle"]. (?1813-15; premiered 1879). Libretto August von Kotzebue. Evil magician, ghosts. An Amazon emerges from a tomb, statues come to life. Sacontala ["Sacuntala"] (?1820-21; premiered 1971). Libretto Johann Philipp Naumann, after Abhijnana-shakuntala ["Sakuntala and the Ring of Recognition"] by Kalidasa (5th century). Demon, nymph, flying chariot, descending cloud, magic sword, magic shield, Heaven, heavenly voices, dryads, Genii, demons.

Donizetti, Gaetano (Italy 1797-1848) Il Pimmalione ["Pygmalion"] (?1816; premiered 1960). Libretto anon, after Antonio Simcone Sografi, after Pygmalion by Jean Jacques Rousseau, after Ovid.

Hoffmann, E(rnst) T(heodor Wilhelm) A(madeus) (Germany 1776-1822) Undine (1816). Libretto by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué.

Spohr, Louis [Ludwig] (Germany 1784-1859) Faust (1816). Libretto Joseph Karl Bernard, after Fausts Leben, Taten und Höllenfahrt by Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger. Zemire und Azor ["Zemire and Azor"] (1819). Libretto Johann Jakob Ihlee, after Zémire et Azor by Jean François Marmontel, after La Belle et la Bête ["Beauty and the Beast"] by Mme J M Leprince de Beaumont, Amour pour amour by Pierre Claude Nivelle de la Chaussée. Fairy, magic rose, magic mirror, spirits. Prince previously transformed into a monster is changed back. Der Berggeist ["The Mountain Spirit"] (1825). Libretto Georg Döring, after ?Musäus.

Hérold, Ferdinand (France 1791-1833) La clochette, ou Le diable page ["The Bell, or The Devil Page"] (1817). Libretto Emmanuel Guillaume Marguerite Théaulon de Lambert, after The Arabian Nights. Story of Aladdin. Zampa, ou La fiancée de marbre ["Zampa, or The Marble Bride"] (1831). Libretto Mélesville (Anne-Honoré Joseph Duveyrier). A female statue does not release pirate's ring placed on its finger, but drags him to death underwater.

Rossini, Gioachino [Gioacchino] (Italy 1792-1868) Armida (1817). Libretto Giovanni Schmidt, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), demon (Astaroth), heavenly voice, magic wand, winged dragons (pulling chariot), demons, spirits, nymphs. Semiramide ["Semiramis"] (1823). Libretto Gaetano Rossi, after Sémiramis by Voltaire, after Middle Eastern legend.

Boieldieu, François-Adrien (France 1775-1834) Le petit chaperon rouge ["Little Red Riding Hood"] (1818). Libretto Emmanuel Guillaume Marguerite Théaulon de Lambert, after ?German folktale. A nobleman replaces the traditional wolf. La dame blanche ["The White Lady"] (1825). Libretto Eugène Scribe, after Guy Mannering, The Monastery and The Abbot by Walter Scott.

Mercadente, Saverio (Italy 1795-1870) L'apoteosi d'Ercole ["The Apotheosis of Hercules"] (1819). Libretto Giovanni Schmidt, after Ovid. Jupiter, Hercules. Amleto ["Hamlet"] (1822). Libretto Felice Romani, after Jean François Ducis, after William Shakespeare.

Spontini, Gaspare (Italy-France 1774-1851) Lalla Rookh (1821; rev 1822 as Nurmahal, oder Das Rosenfest von Caschmir ["Nurmahal, or The Rose Festival of Cashmir"]). Libretto Carl Alexander Herklots, after Lalla Rookh by Thomas Moore. Alcidor (1825). Libretto Carl Alexander Herklots, after Alcindor by Rochon de Chabannes.

Kuhlau, Friedrich (Germany-Denmark 1786-1832) Lulu (1824). Libretto Carl Christian Frederik Güntelberg, after Lulu, oder Die Zauberflöte by A J Liebeskind. Magician, witches, fairy, black elves, water elf, magic flute, magic ring (for transformation), magic rosebud, ghosts, elves.

Liszt, Franz [Ferenc] (Hungary-Germany 1811-1886) Don Sanche, ou Le château d'amour ["Don Sanche, or The Castle of Love"] (1825). Libretto Emmanuel Guillaume Marguerite Théaulon de Lambert and de Rancé, after Claris de Florian.

Mendelssohn [-Bartholdy], Felix (Germany 1809-1847) Die Hochzeit des Camacho ["Camacho's Wedding"] (1827). Libretto Friedrich Voigt (or Karl Klingemann), after Cervantes. Cupid, ghost. Loreley (?1847). Libretto Emanuel Geibel, after German legend. A human woman becomes a watersprite (Loreley).

Marschner, Heinrich (Germany 1795-1861) Der Vampyr ["The Vampire"] (1828). Libretto Wilhelm August Wohlbrück, after Les vampires by Charles Nodier and P F A Carmouche and A de Jouffroy (trans as Der Vampir oder die Totenbraut by Heinrich Ludwig Ritter), after The Vampyre by John W Polidori (attrib to Lord Byron), after Fragment of a Novel (or Augustus Darnell) by Lord Byron. Hans Heiling (1833). Libretto Eduard Devrient, after Karl Theodor Körner, after German legend.

Meyerbeer, Giacomo [Jakob Liebmann Meyer Beer] (Germany-France 1791-1864) Robert le diable ["Robert the Devil"] (1831). Libretto Eugène Scribe, after Germain Delavigne. Devil (Robert's father), magic cypress branch, evil spirits. Tombstone statues of dead nuns come to life.

Wagner, Richard (Germany 1813-1883) see Richard Wagner Die Feen ["The Fairies"] (?1833-4; premiered 1888). Libretto Wagner, after La donna serpente by Carlo Gozzi. Fairy King, magician, fairies (one temporarily turned to stone), bronze men, magic lyre, spirits. Der fliegende Holländer ["The Flying Dutchman"] (1843). Libretto Wagner, after Aus den Memoiren des Herrn von Schnabelewopski by Heinrich Heine. Dutchman cursed to sail the seas forever in his ghost ship. Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf dem Wartburg ["Tannhäuser and the Song Contest on the Wartburg"] (1845). Libretto Wager, after Tannhäuser: eine Legende by Heinrich Heine, Der getreue Eckart und der Tannenhäuser by Ludwig Tieck and Der Wartburgkrieg, anon (13th century), after historical fact and German legend. Lohengrin (1850). Libretto Wagner, after Lohengrin, anon (circa 1290), after Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach, after historical fact and German legend. A prince, previously transformed into a swan, is changed back again. Tristan und Isolde ["Tristan and Isolde"] (1865). Libretto Wagner, after Tristan by Gottfried von Strassburg, after Tristran by Thomas of Britain, after Tristram and Iseult legend. Der Ring des Nibelungen ["The Ring of the Nibelungs"] (4 operas). Librettos Wagner, after Nibelungenlied, anon, Thidreks Saga, anon, Volsunga Saga, anon, Poetic (Elder) Edda, anon, Prose (Younger) Edda by Snorri Sturluson. Das Rheingold ["The Rhinegold"] (1869). Valhalla, Wotan, Fricka, Freia, Loge, Donner, Froh, Erda (Earth), giants (one transformed into a dragon), gnomes (Nibelungs), Rhine maidens, magic gold forged into magic ring and magic helmet, Nibelungs. Die Walküre ["The Valkyrie"] (1870). Wotan, Fricka, Loge, Brunnhilde, Valkyries. Siegfried (1876). Wotan, Erda, Brunnhilde, gnomes (Nibelungs), dragon, magic ring, magic helmet, magic sword, woodbird. Götterdämmerung ["The Twilight of the Gods"] (1876). Brunnhilde, Valkyre, gnome (Nibelung), Norns, Rhine maidens, winged horse, magic ring, magic helmet, magic potion. Parzifal ["Parsifal"] (1882), Libretto Wagner, after Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach, after Perceval le Gallois, ou Le conte de Graal by Chrétien de Troyes, Welsh Arthurian legend of "Peredur Son of Efrawg" (11th century?) included in the Mabinogion. Witch, magician, Holy Grail, magic garden, holy spear, heavenly voices.

Auber, Daniel (France 1782-1871) Le cheval de bronze ["The Bronze Horse"] (1835; rev 1857). Libretto Eugène Scribe. Siren on the planet Venus, winged bronze horse, magic armband, men are transformed into wooden pagodas and are changed back. Le lac des fées ["The Fairy Lake"] (1839). Libretto Eugène Scribe and Mélesville (Anne-Honoré Joseph Duveyrier), after German ballad. Fairies are transformed from swans. La part du diable, ou Carlo Broschi ["The Devil's Portion, or Carlo Broschi"] (1843). Libretto Eugène Scribe. Devil. (Carlo Broschi was original name of castrato singer Farinelli.)

Glinka, Mikhail (Russia 1804-1857) Ruslan i Lyudmila ["Ruslan and Ludmila"] (1842). Libretto Glinka with Valerian Shirkov et al., after Aleksandr Pushkin. Good magician, evil magician (dwarf Chernomor), witch, magic ring, magic sword, giant head, dwarves, nymphs, undines, enchanted maidens.

Pacini, Giovanni (Italy 1796-1867) Medea (1843). Libretto Benedetto Castiglia, after Euripides.

Dargomïzhsky, Aleksandr (Russia 1813-1869) Torzhestvo Vakha ["The Triumph of Bacchus"] (?1845; premiered 1867). Libretto after Aleksandr Pushkin. Rusalka (1856). Libretto Dargomïzhsky, after Aleksandr Pushkin. Dead girl becomes watersprite queen. Kamyennïy gost ["The Stone Guest"] (1872). Libretto Aleksandr Pushkin, after El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de pietra by Tirso de Molina (attrib). A statue comes to life and drags Don Juan to hell.

Lortzing, Albert (Germany 1801-1851) Undine (1845). Libretto Lortzing with Philip Düringer, after Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué. Rolands Knappen, oder Das ersehnete Glück ["Roland's Miners, or The Desired Happiness"] (1849). Libretto Lortzing with G Meisinger and K [?Karl] Haffner, after Musäus. Mountain Queen, magic gifts, gnomes, earth spirits.

Verdi, Giuseppe (Italy 1813-1901) Giovanna d'Arco ["Joan of Arc"] (1845). Libretto Temistocle Solera, after Die Jungfrau von Orleans by Friedrich von Schiller. Good and evil spirits. Macbeth (1847). Libretto Francesco Maria Piave with Andrea Maffei, after William Shakespeare. Witches, ghost, apparitions, spirits, Hecate, devils. Don Carlos (1867). Libretto François-Joseph Méry and Camille du Locle, after Friedrich von Schiller. Heavenly voice. Falstaff (1893). Libretto Arrigo Boito, after The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare. Herne the Hunter, Fairy Queen, elves, spirits, fairies, witches.

Berlioz, Hector (France 1803-1869) La damnation de Faust ["The Damnation of Faust"] (1846). Libretto Berlioz with Almire Gandonnière, after Goethe. Les Troyens ["The Trojans"] (?1856-60; premiered 1890). Libretto Berlioz, after Virgil. Mercury, ghosts, naiads, fauns, wood nymphs, satyrs.

Nicolai, Otto (Germany 1810-1849) Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor ["The Merry Wives of Windsor"] (1849). Libretto Hermann Salomon Mosenthal, after William Shakespeare. Herne the Hunter, Oberon, Titania, elves, spirits, insects.

Halévy, Fromental (France 1799-1862) La tempestà ["The Tempest"] (1850). Libretto Pietro Giannone, after William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), spirit (Ariel). Le juif errant ["The Wandering Jew"] (1852). Libretto Eugène Scribe and Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges, after legend. Ahasuerus (but only in a single lifetime).

Ricci, Luigi (Italy 1805-1859) and Ricci, Federico (Italy 1809-1877) Crispino e la comare, ossia Il medico e la morte ["Crispin and the Fairy, or The Doctor and Death"] (1850). Libretto Francesco Maria Piave, after Salvatore Fabbrichesi, after Crispin médecin by Noel Le Breton. Fairy godmother, vision of Hell.

Schumann, Robert (Germany 1810-1856) Genoveva ["Genevieve"] (1850). Libretto Schumann with Robert Reinick, after Das Leben und Tod der heiligen Genoveva by Ludwig Tieck and Genoveva by Friedrich Hebbel. Sorceress, ghost, magic mirror, spirits. Manfred (1852). Libretto Schumann after ?F W Suckow trans of play by Lord Byron. Spirit (Manfred), Alpine fairy (Nemesis), Ariman (Prince of Earth and Air), Astarte (phantom lover), Fates, spirits, demons. Szenen aus Goethes Faust ["Scenes from Goethe's Faust"] (?1844-53; premiered 1862). Libretto Schumann, after Goethe.

Thomas, Ambroise (France 1811-1896) Le songe d'une nuit d'été ["The Midsummer Night's Dream"] (1850). Libretto Joseph Bernard Rosier and Adolphe de Leuven. Not based on A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare. Queen Elizabeth I, William Shakespeare, various Shakespearean characters, including Sir John Falstaff. Hamlet (1868). Libretto Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, after William Shakespeare.

Adam, Adolphe (France 1803-1856) La poupée de Nuremberg ["The Nuremberg Doll"] (1852). Libretto Adolphe de Leuven and A de Beauplan, after Der Sandmann by E T A Hoffmann. Life-size female doll comes alive.

Flotow, Friedrich von (Germany 1812-1883) Rübezahl (1853). Libretto Gustav Heinrich Gans zu Pulitz, after ?Musäus.

Rubinstein, Anton (Russia 1829-1894) Sibirskiye okhotniki ["The Siberian Huntsmen"] (1854). Libretto Andrei Sherebzov. Snow Queen, snow maidens. Das verlorene Paradies ["Paradise Lost"] (1858). Libretto Arnold Schönbach, after John Milton. Satan, angels, evil spirits. Der Turm zu Babel ["The Tower of Babel"] (1870). Libretto Julius Rodenberg, after the Bible. Angels, evil spirits. Dyemon ["The Demon"] (1875). Libretto Pavel Viskovatov and Apollon Maikov, after Mikhail Lyermontov. Demon, Angel of Goodness, demons, angels. Nyeron ["Nero"] (1879). Libretto Rubinstein, after Jules Barbier. Ghosts. Der Papagei ["The Parrot"] (1884). Libretto Hugo Wittmann, after Persian folktale. Magic mirror.

Balfe, Michael William (Ireland-UK 1808-1870) Satanella, or The Power of Love (1858). Libretto Augustus Harris and Edmund Falconer (Edmund O'Rourke), after Le diable amoureux by Joseph Mazilier after Jacques Cazotte. Devil.

Offenbach, Jacques [Jakob] (Germany-France 1819-1880) La chatte métamorphosée en femme ["The Cat Transformed into a Woman"] (1858). Libretto Eugène Scribe and Mélesville (Anne-Honoré Joseph Duveyrier). Orphée aux enfers ["Orpheus in the Underworld"] (1858). Libretto Hector Crémieux and Ludovic Halévy, after Ovid. Daphnis et Chloé ["Daphnis and Chloe"] (1860). Libretto Clairville (Louis François Nicolaie) and Jules Cordier, after Longus. Pan, Calisto, nymph. Die Rheinnixen ["The Rhine Sprites"] (1864). Libretto Baron Alfred von Wolzogen trans of Charles Nuitter (Truinet) and Etienne Tréfeu. Watersprites, fairies, elves, goblins. La belle Hélène ["Beautiful Helen"] (1864). Libretto Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, after Helen etc. by Euripides. Juno, Minerva, Venus, Mercury. Les contes d'Hoffmann ["The Tales of Hoffmann"] (1881). Libretto Jules Barbier, after Barbier and Michel Carré, after Der Sandmann, Rath Krespel and Die Abenteuer der Silvester-Nacht by E T A Hoffmann. Devil, mechanical woman, Muse of the poet Hoffmann.

Gounod, Charles (France 1818-1893) Faust (1859). Libretto Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, after Faust et Marguerite by Carré, after Goethe. Philémon et Baucis ["Philemon and Baucis"] (1860). Libretto Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, after Jean de la Fontaine, after Ovid. Jupiter, Vulcan. Mireille (1864). Libretto Michel Carré, after Mirèio by Frédéric Mistral. Good witch, ghost, heavenly voice, river spirits. Roméo et Juliette ["Romeo and Juliet"] (1867). Libretto Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, after William Shakespeare.

Wallace, Vincent (Ireland 1812-1865) Lurline (1860). Libretto Edward Fitzball, after German legend. Rhine nymph, Rhine maidens, magic harp.

David, Félicien (France 1810-1876) Lalla Roukh ["Lalla Rookh"] (1862). Libretto Michel Carré and Lucas, after Lalla Rookh by Thomas Moore.

Bruch, Max (Germany 1838-1920) Die Loreley ["The Loreley"] (1863). Libretto Emanuel Geibel, after German legend. A human woman becomes a watersprite (Loreley).

Moniuszko, Stanisław (Poland 1819-1872) Strazny dwór ["The Haunted Manor"] (1865). Libretto Jan Ch'cifski.

Suppé, Franz von [Francesco de Suppé-Demelli] (Austria 1819-1895) Die schöne Galathee ["Beautiful Galatea"] (1865). Libretto Poly Henrion (Leopold Kohl von Kohlenegg), after Ovid. The statue of a young woman comes to life but is subsequently turned again to stone. Boccaccio (1879). Libretto F Zell (Camillo Walzel) and Richard Genée, after Boccace, ou Le Décaméron by J F A Bayard, Adolphe de Leuven, Lhérie and de Beauplan, after Boccaccio and Boccaccio's life. Boccaccio, Commedia dell'Arte characters, including Harlequin.

Millöcker, Karl (Austria 1842-1899) Diana (1867). Libretto J Braun, after ?Die Freier by Joseph von Eichendorff. Diana, Acteon, nymphs, animals.

Boito, Arrigo (Italy 1842-1918) Mefistofele ["Mephistopheles"] (1868; rev 1860-1867). Libretto Boito, after Goethe.

Smetana, Bedřich (Czechoslovakia 1824-1884) Dalibor (1868). Libretto Ervín Spindler, trans of text by Josef Wenzig. Ghost. Tajemství ["The Secret"] (1878). Libretto Eliška Krásnohorská. Ghosts, spirits. Čertova stûna ["The Devil's Wall"] (1882). Libretto Eliška Krásnohorská, after Czech legend. Devil, demons.

Cui, César (Russia 1835-1918) Vil'yam Ratclif ["William Ratcliff"] (1869). Libretto Aleksey Pleshcheyev, after Heinrich Heine. Ghosts. Snyezhnïy bogatïr' ["The Snow Giant"] (1906; rev 1953 by D Sedych as Ivan bogatïr'). Libretto Marina Pol, after Russian fairytale. Dragon, swan maidens, enchanted maidens. Krasnaya shapochka ["Red Riding Hood"] (1911; premiered 1922). Libretto Marina Pol, after Perrault. Kot v sapogakh ["Puss in Boots"] (1916). Libretto Marina Pol, after Perrault.

Hervé [Florimond Ronger] (France 1825-1892) Le petit Faust ["Little Faust"] (1869). Libretto Hector Crémieux and Adolphe Jaime, after Goethe. Faust is a school teacher in this parody of Charles Gounod's Faust 1859.

Rheinberger, Joseph (Germany 1839-1901) Die sieben Raben ["The Seven Ravens"] (1869). Libretto Franz Bonn, ?after German fairytale. Seven brothers, previously transformed into ravens, are changed back again.

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich (Russia 1840-1893) Undina ["Undine"] (1869). Libretto Vladimir Sollogub, after Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué. Kuznyets Vakula ["Vakula the Smith"] (1876; rev 1885-1886 as Cherevichki ["The Little Boots"]). Libretto Yakov Polonsky, after Noch' pered Rozhdyestvom by Nikolai Gogol. The plot is almost identical to the version of Gogol's story used in Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's Noch' pered Rozhdyestvom 1895. Orlyeanskaya dyeva ["The Maid of Orleans/Joan of Arc"] (1881) Libretto Tchaikovsky, after Die Jungfrau von Orleans by Friedrich von Schiller, Jeanne d'Arc by Auguste Mermet, after Jules Barbier. Pikovaya dama ["Pique Dame/The Queen of Spades"] (1890). Libretto Modyeste Tchaikovsky, after Aleksandr Pushkin.

Strauss, Johann the Younger (Austria 1825-1899) Indigo und die vierzig Räuber ["Indigo and the Forty Thieves"] (1871; rev 1906 by Ernst Reiterer as 1000 Nacht). Libretto M Steiner, after The Arabian Nights.

Sullivan, Arthur (UK 1842-1900) Thespis, or The Gods Grown Old (1871). Libretto W S Gilbert. Jupiter, Apollo, Mars, Diana, Mercury. Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri (1882). Libretto W S Gilbert. Fairy Queen, Peri (spirit, Iolanthe), fairies. Ruddigore, or The Witch's Curse (1887). Libretto W S Gilbert. The ghosts of 8 ancestors emerge from their portraits.

Cornelius, Peter (Germany 1824-1874) Gunlöd (?1866; premiered 1891). Libretto Cornelius, after Poetic (Elder) Edda, anon, Prose (Younger) Edda by Snorri Sturluson. Odin, underworld goddess (Hela), giant, magic potion, spirits of light, underworld ghosts, giants.

Dvorák, Antonín (Czechoslovakia 1841-1904) Vanda (1876). Libretto Václav Beneš-úmavsk? and František Zákrejs, after Julian Surzycki (attrib). Witch, ghosts. Čert a Káča ["The Devil and Kate"] (1899). Libretto Adolf Wenig, after Czech folktale. Rusalka (1901). Libretto Jaroslav Kvapil, after Undine by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué, The Little Mermaid by Hans Christian Andersen and Die versunkene Glocke by Gerhart Hauptmann. Watersprite, Rusalka, transformed into a human, then into a will-o'-the-wisp. Armida (1904). Libretto Jaroslav Vrchlick?, after Philippe Quinault, after Tasso. Sorceress (Armida), magician, sirens.

Ponchielli, Amilcare (Italy 1834-1886) La gioconda ["The Joyful Girl"] (1876). Libretto Arrigo Boito (as Tobia Gorrio), after Angelo, tyran de Padoue by Victor Hugo.

Chabrier, Emmanuel (France 1841-1894) Le Sabbat ["The Sabbath"] (1877). Libretto Armand Silvestre.

Massenet, Jules (France 1842-1912) Le roi de Lahore ["The King of Lahore"] (1877). Libretto Louis Gallet, after Voyage autour du monde by Comte Roger de Beauvoir, after the Mahabharata. Esclarmonde (1889). Libretto Alfred Blau and Louis de Gramont, after Pathénopoeus de Blois, anon (pre-1188). Magician (Byzantine King), sorceress (Princess Esclarmonde), magic island, magic sword. Cendrillon ["Cinderella"] (1899). Libretto Henri Cain, after Perrault. Grisélidis (1901). Libretto Armand Silvestre and Eugène Morand, after their play, after Boccaccio. Devil, female devil, St Agnes, spirits, heavenly voices. Le jongleur de Notre-Dame ["The Juggler of Notre-Dame"] (1902). Libretto Maurice Léna, after L'Etui de nacre by Anatole France, after Le tombeur de Notre-Dame by Gaston Paris, after medieval mystery play. Ariane ["Ariadne"] (1906). Libretto Catulle Mendès, partly after Apollodorus. Bacchus (1909). Libretto Catulle Mendès, after Râmayana by Palmiki. Bacchus, monkeys, etc. Don Quichotte ["Don Quixote"] (1910). Libretto Henri Cain, after Le chevalier de la longue figure by Jacques Le Lorrain, after Cervantes. Amadis (?1889-90; premiered 1922). Libretto Jules Claretie, after Amadis de Gaula by García Rodríguez de Montalvo. Fairies, magic jewels. Panurge (1913). Libretto Maurice Boukay and Georges Spitzmuller, after Pantagruel by François Rabelais.

Planquette, Robert (France 1848-1903) Les cloches de Corneville ["The Bells of Corneville"] (1877). Libretto Clairville (Louis François Nicolaie) and Charles Gabet. Set in a haunted castle. Rip (van Winkle) (1882). Libretto Philippe Gille and Henri Meilhac, after "Rip Van Winkle" by Washington Irving. A man dreams that he is cursed to sleep for 20 years.

Catalani, Alfredo (Italy 1854-1893) Elda (1880; rev 1889 as Loreley). Libretto Carlo d'Ormeville and Angelo Zanardini, after German legend. A woman becomes a watersprite (Loreley).

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai (Russia 1844-1908) Mayskaya noch' ["May Night"] (1880). Libretto Rimsky-Korsakov, after Nikolai Gogol. Snyegurochka ["The Snow Maiden"] (1882). Libretto Rimsky-Korsakov, after Aleksandr Ostrovsky, after Russian folktale. Spring Fairy, Frost King, wood-spirit, Sun God, fairies, Shrovetide straw puppet, animals, birds, spring flowers. Mlada (1892). Libretto Rimsky-Korsakov, after Stepan Gedeonov and Viktor Krylov. Good ghost (Mlada), underworld goddess, apparitions of Cleopatra, magician (Kashchei), black god (Chernobog), gods of heaven and hell, wood spirits, werewolves, ghosts, witches, shades, souls of heroes. Noch' pered Rozhdyestvom ["Christmas Eve"] (1895). Libretto Rimsky-Korsakov, after Nikolai Gogol. Devil, witch, magician, winged horse, magicians, witches, good and evil spirits, ghosts, stars. Sadko (1898). Libretto Rimsky-Korsakov with Vladimir Byel'sky and others, after 11th-century epic poem. Magicians, Sea King, Sea King's daughter (transformed into a river), apparition of a hero, mermaids (also in the form of swans), Sea Queen, gold and silver fish. Skazka o tsare Saltanye, o synye yevo slavnom i moguchem bogatyrye Gvidone Saltanovich i o prekrasnoi tsaryevnye lyebyedi ["The Tale of Tsar Saltan, of his Son the Famous and Mighty Hero Prince Guidon Saltanovich and of the Beautiful Swan Princess"] (1900). Libretto Vladimir Byel'sky, after "Swan Princess" by Aleksandr Pushkin. A prince is transformed into a bumble-bee and is changed back again. Kashchey Byessmyertnïy ["Kashchei the Immortal"] (1902). Libretto Rimsky-Korsakov, after Yevgyeniy Pyotrovsky. A magician's daughter transformed into a weeping willow. Skazaniye o nyevidimom gradye Kityezhe i dyevye Fyevronii ["The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya"] (1907). Libretto Vladimir Byel'sky, after Russian legend. Kitezh avoids the Tartars by invisibility at the bottom of a lake; only its church bells are audible. Zolotoy pyetushok ["The Golden Cockerel"] (1909). Libretto Vladimir Byel'sky, after Aleksandr Pushkin. A magic golden cockerel warns of danger.

Musorgsky, Modyest (Russia 1839-1881) Sorochinskaya yarmarka ["Sorochinsky Fair"] (?1874-81; rev 1911). Libretto Musorgsky, after Nikolai Gogol. Black god (Chernobog), devils, witches (includes sabbath), dwarves. The opera was unfinished and has been revised and completed by several hands.

Delibes, Léo (France 1836-1891) Lakmé (1883). Libretto Edmond Gondinet and Philippe Gille, after Rarahu (Le mariage de Loti) by Pierre Loti.

Puccini, Giacomo (Italy 1858-1924) Le Villi ["The Willis"] (1884). Libretto Ferdinando Fontana, after Les wilis by Alphonse Karr, after legend. Turandot (1926; completed 1925-1926 by Franco Alfano). Libretto Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni, after Carlo Gozzi, after legend.

Reyer [Rey], Ernest (France 1823-1909) Sigurd (1884). Libretto Camille du Locle and Alfred Blau, after Nibelungenlied.

Duparc, Henri (France 1848-1933) Roussalka ["Rusalka"] (before 1885). Libretto anon, after Aleksandr Pushkin.

Goldmark, Karl [Károly] (Hungary-Austria 1830-1915) Merlin (1886; rev 1904). Libretto Siegfried Lipiner, after Arthurian legend (see Arthur). magician (Merlin), fairy (Morgana) (see Morgan Le Fay), demon, magic veil, spirits. Das Heimchen am Herd ["The Cricket on the Hearth"] (1896). Libretto Alfred Maria Willner, after Charles Dickens.

Janáček, Leoš (Czechoslovakia 1854-1928) Sárka (?1887-8; rev 1918 and 1924). Libretto Julius Zeyer, after his play, after Dalimil's Chronicle, anon (14th century). Magic weapons. Výlety pánû Brouakovy ["The Excursions of Mr Brouaek"] (1920). Libretto Janáček with František Procházka and others, after novels by Svatopluk Čech. The drunken "hero" dreams of life on the moon and in the 15th century. Príhody lišky Bystroušky ["The Cunning Little Vixen/Adventures of Vixen Sharp-Ears"] (1924). Libretto Janáček, after Liska Bystrouska (1920 Lidove Noviny; 1921; trans Tatiana Firkusny, Maritza Morgan and Robert T Jones as The Cunning Little Vixen 1985 US) by Rudolf Tešnohlídek (1882-1928) after drawings by Stanislav Lolek. Víěc Makropulos ["The Makropoulos Affair"] (1926). Libretto Janáček, after Karel Čapek. A singer's lifespan is much extended – to 337 years – by the elixir of life.

Lalo, Edouard (France 1823-1892) Le roi d'Ys ["The King of Ys"] (1888). Libretto Edouard Blau, after Breton legend. A patron saint's statue comes to life.

Mahler, Gustav (Austria 1860-1911) Rübezahl (1890; unfinished, now lost). Libretto Mahler, after ?Musäus.

Delius, Frederick (UK-France 1862-1934) Irmelin (?1890-92; premiered 1953). Libretto Delius, after ?legend and The Princess and the Swineherd by Hans Christian Andersen. The Magic Fountain (?1894-5; premiered 1977). Libretto Delius with Jutta Bell. Koanga (1904). Libretto Charles F Keary, after composer with Jutta Bell, after The Grandissimes: A Story of Creole Life by George Washington Cable. A voodoo priest's curse destroys a sugarcane plantation.

Leoncavallo, Ruggero (Italy 1857-1919) Il Pagliacci ["The Clowns"] (1892). Libretto Leoncavallo. The play within the opera has Commedia dell'Arte characters. Edipo Re ["Oedipus the King"] (1920). Libretto Giovacchino Forzano, after Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles.

Albéniz, Isaac (Spain 1860-1909) The Magic Opal (1893; retitled as The Magic Ring, rev 1894 as La sortija) (1893). Libretto Arthur Law. Merlin (?1898-1902; premiered 1950). Libretto Francis Burdett Money-Coutts, after Arthurian legend (see Arthur).

Humperdinck, Engelbert (Germany 1854-1921) Hänsel und Gretel ["Hansel and Gretel"] (1893). Libretto Adelheid Wette, after Grimm Brothers. Children previously transformed into cakes are changed back again. Dornröschen ["Sleeping Beauty"] (1902). Libretto E Ebeling and B Filhès, after "La Belle au bois dormant" by Charles Perrault. Die Königskinder ["The Royal Children"] (1910). Libretto Ernst Rosmer (Else Bernstein-Porges), after her play.

Fibich, Zdeněk (Czechoslovakia 1850-1900) Bouře ["The Tempest"] (1895). Libretto Jaroslav Vrchlick?, after The Tempest by William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), spirit (Ariel).

Mascagni, Pietro (Italy 1863-1945) Guglielmo Ratcliff ["William Ratcliff"] (1895). Libretto Andrea Maffei, trans of play by Heinrich Heine. Iris (1898). Libretto Luigi Illica. Parisina (1913). Libretto Gabriele d'Annunzio, partly after Lord Byron. Il piccolo Marat ["The Little Marat"] (1921). Libretto Giovacchino Forzano and Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti, after Sous la Terreur by Victor Martin.

Taneyev, Sergei (Russia 1856-1915) Oresteya ["The Oresteia"] (1895). Libretto Alexei Venkstyern, after dramatic trilogy by Aeschylus.

d'Indy, Vincent (France 1851-1931) Fervaal (1897). Libretto d'Indy, after "Axel" by Esaïas Tegner. Magic garden, heavenly voices. L'étranger ["The Stranger"] (1903). Libretto d'Indy. Story not dissimilar to similar to Richard Wagner's Der fliegende Holländer 1843. La légende de Saint-Christophe ["The Legend of Saint Christopher"] (1920; rev 1922). Libretto d'Indy, after Legenda aurea by Archbishop Jacobus de Voragine (Jacopo da Varagine) (13th century). Satan, Queen of Pleasure, King of Gold, King of Heaven.

Foerster, Josef Bohuslav (Czechoslovakia 1859-1951) Eva (1899). Libretto Foerster, after Gazdina roba ("The Farm Mistress") by Gabriela Preissov. Ghosts exist in Eva's imagination.

Lincke, Paul (Germany 1866-1946) Frau Luna ["Mistress Moon/Castles in the Air"] (1899). Libretto Heinz Bolton-Bäckers. A balloon flies to the moon.

Wagner, Siegfried (Germany 1869-1930) Der Bärenhäuter ["The Man in the Bearskin"] (1899). Libretto S Wagner. Devil, St Peter, Hell, demons, lost souls. Der Kobold ["The Goblin"] (1904). Libretto S Wagner. Hobgoblins, magic jewel. Banadietrich (1910). Libretto S Wagner. Devil, Death, watersprite, monstrous ghost, elves, spirits. Sonnenflammen ["The Flames of the Sun"] (1912). Libretto S Wagner with Peter Paul Pachl. Ghost. An allem ist Hütchen schuld ["Hütchen is to Blame for Everything"] (1917). Libretto S Wagner. Hütchen is a goblin. Schwarzschwanenreich ["The Kingdom of the Black Swan"] (1918) Libretto S Wagner. Devil, magic lake. Der Schmied von Marienburg ["The Blacksmith of Marienburg"] (1923). Libretto S Wagner. Devil. Der Friedensengel ["The Angel of Peace"] (1926). Libretto S Wagner. Das Flüchlein, das Jeder mitbekam ["The Curse that Affected Everyone"] (?1928-30; premiered 1984). Libretto S Wagner. Princes previously transformed into swans are changed back again.

Fauré, Gabriel (France 1845-1924) Prométhée ["Prometheus"] (1900; rev 1916). Libretto Jean Lorrain, after André Ferdinand Hérold, after Erga ["Works and Days"] by Hesiod, Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus.

Wolf-Ferrari, Ermanno (Italy-Germany 1876-1948) Cenerentola (Aschenbrödel) ["Cinderella"] (1900). Libretto Maria Pezze-Pascolato (Julius Schweitzer), after Grimm Brothers and Charles Perrault. La veste di cielo (Das Himmelskleid) ["The Heavenly Clothes"] (1927). Libretto ?Wolf-Ferrari. Magician, moon fairy, magic donkey, heavenly clothing, moon court, air spirits, moon maidens, sun children. Gli dei a Tebe (Der Kuckuck von Theben) ["The Gods at Thebes (The Cuckoo of Thebes)"] (1943). Libretto Ludwig Andersen and Mario Ghisalberti, after ?Apollodorus. The story of the conception of Hercules.

Magnard, Albéric (France 1865-1914) Guercoeur (?1897-1901; premiered 1931). Libretto Magnard. A dead man returns to life on earth.

Pfitzner, Hans (Germany 1869-1949) Die Rose vom Liebesgarten ["The Rose from the Garden of Love"] (1901). Libretto James Grun, after painting by Hans Thoma. Das Christ-Elflein ["The Little Elf of Christ"] (1906). Libretto Pfitzner, after Ilse von Stach. Palestrina (1917). Libretto Pfitzner, after life of composer Giovanni Palestrina (circa 1525-1594). Angelic voices, ghosts. Das Herz ["The Heart"] (1931). Libretto Hans Mahner-Mons. Magician, ghost, demon (Asmodeus).

Strauss, Richard (Germany 1864-1949) Feuersnot ["Fire Famine"] (1901). Libretto Ernst von Wolzogen, after Flemish legend "The Extinguished Fires of Oudenaarde". Ariadne auf Naxos ["Ariadne on Naxos"] (1912). Libretto Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after Le bourgeois gentilhomme by Molière, after Ovid. Die Frau ohne Schatten ["The Woman without a Shadow"] (1919). Libretto Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after his short story. An empress without a shadow (previously transformed back to human form from a gazelle) buys one from a woman. Emperor gradually turned to stone and is changed back again. Die ägyptische Helena ["The Egyptian Helen"] (1928). Libretto Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after Greek legend. Daphne (1938). Libretto Josef Gregor, after Ovid. Die Liebe der Danaë ["The Love of Danae"] (?1938-40; premiered 1952). Libretto Josef Gregor, after Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after Greek legend. Danae is transformed into a golden statue and changed back again.

Terrasse, Claude (France 1867-1923) Les travaux d'Hercule ["The Labours of Hercules"] (1901). Libretto anon, after Apollodorus.

Cilèa, Francesco (Italy 1866-1950) Adriana Lecouvreur ["Adrienne Lecouvreur"] (1902). Libretto Arturo Colautti, after Eugène Scribe and Ernest Legouvé, based on life of 18th-century tragic actress.

Nielsen, Carl (Denmark 1865-1931) Saul og David ["Saul and David"] (1902). Libretto Einar Christiansen, after the Bible (I Samuel 28). Witch of Endor summons up spirit of the prophet Samuel.

Chausson, Ernest (France 1855-1899) Le roi Arthus ["King Arthur"] (1903). Libretto Chausson, after Arthurian legend. Magician (Merlin), winged maidens. Arthur ascends to heaven in a chariot.

Herbert, Victor (Ireland-US 1859-1924) Babes in Toyland (1903). Libretto Glen MacDonough.

Sloane, A. Baldwin (US 1872-1926) and Tietjens, Paul (US 1877-1943) The Wizard of Oz (1903). Libretto L Frank Baum, after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Witches, Oz.

Ganne, Louis (France 1862-1923) Hans le joueur de flûte ["Hans the Flute Player"] (1906). Libretto Maurice Ordonneau. A magic flute.

Rakhmaninov, Sergei (Russia-US 1873-1943) Francheska da Rimini ["Francesca of Rimini"] (1906). Libretto Modyest Tchaikovsky, after Aleksandr Pushkin, after Inferno by Dante. Ghosts of Virgil, Paolo and Francesca, Dante.

Prokofiev, Sergei (Russia 1891-1953) Undina ["Undine"] (1904-1907). Libretto Mariya Kilstett, after Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué. Lyubov' k tryom apel'sinam ["The Love for Three Oranges"] (1921). Libretto Prokofiev, after Fiaba dell'amore delle tre melarancie by Carlo Gozzi. Devil, witch (Fata Morgana), magician, princesses in oranges (one is later transformed into a rat and is changed back again), Ridiculous People, magic ribbon, devils, spirits, monsters, Tragedy, Comedy, Lyric Drama, Farce; includes Commedia dell'Arte elements. Ognyennïy angyel ["The Fiery Angel"] (?1919-23; premiered 1954). Libretto Prokofiev, after novel by Valery Bruysov.

German, Edward (UK 1862-1936) Fallen Fairies, or The Wicked World (1909). Libretto W S Gilbert. Fairy Queen, fairies.

Monckton, Lionel (UK 1861-1924) The Arcadians (1909). Libretto Martin Ambient and Alexander Mattock Thompson; lyric Arthur Harold Wimperis.

Bloch, Ernest (Switzerland-US 1888-1959) Macbeth (1910). Libretto Edmond Fleg, after William Shakespeare.

Granados, Enrique (Spain 1867-1916) Liliana (1911). Libretto Apeles Mestres.

Busoni, Ferruccio (Italy-Germany 1866-1924) Die Brautwahl ["The Bridal Choice"] (1912). Libretto Busoni, after E T A Hoffmann. Revenant white magicians more than 300 years old. Arlecchino oder Die Fenster ["Harlequin, or The Windows"] (1917). Libretto Busoni, after Commedia dell'Arte characters. Doktor Faust ["Doctor Faust"] (1925). Libretto Busoni, after 16th-century puppet play.

Debussy, Claude (France 1862-1918) Le Diable dans le beffroi ["The Devil in the Belfry"] (1912). Libretto Debussy, after Edgar Allen Poe. La chute de la maison Usher ["The Fall of the House of Usher"] (?1908-17; premiered 1977). Libretto Debussy, after Charles Baudelaire trans of Edgar Allen Poe.

Holbrooke, Josef (UK 1878-1958) The Cauldron of Anwyn Libretto Thomas Evelyn Ellis (Lord Howard de Walden), after Welsh legends, including those known collectively as the Mabinogion. A trilogy consisting of The Children of Don (1912), Dylan, Son of the Wave (1914) and Bronwen, Daughter of Llyr (1929).

Schreker, Franz (Austria-Germany 1878-1934) Der ferne Klang ["The Distant Sound"] (1912). Libretto Schreker. Young musician haunted by a "distant sound" realizes that it is true love. Das Spielwerk und die Prinzessin ["The Carillon and the Princess"] (1913; rev 1915-1916 as Das Spielwerk). Libretto Schreker. Magic carillon functions only in response to music, its playing revives dead violinist. Der Schatzgräber ["The Treasure Digger"] (1920) Libretto Schreker. Magic lute and jewels. Irrelohe (1924) Libretto Schreker. A family curse is broken by true love. Der Schmied von Gent ["The Blacksmith of Ghent"] (1932). Libretto Schreker, after Smetse Smee by Charles de Coster. Lucifer, St Joseph, St Mary, St Peter, devils, angels.

Charpentier, Gustave (France 1860-1956) Orphée ["Orpheus"] (1913). Libretto Charpentier, after Ovid.

Boughton, Rutland (UK 1878-1960) The Immortal Hour (1914). Libretto Boughton after play and poems by Fiona MacLeod (William Sharp). Lord of Shadow, Prince and Princess of the Land of the Ever-Young, spirit voices, spirits. The Queen of Cornwall (1924). Libretto Boughton, after Thomas Hardy, after Tristram and Iseult legend.

Rabaud, Henri (France 1873-1949) Mârouf, savetier du Caire ["Marouf, Cobbler of Cairo"] (1914). Libretto Lucien Népoty, after The Arabian Nights.

Ravel, Maurice (France 1875-1937) La cloche engloutie ["The Sunken Bell"] (1906-1914). Libretto André Ferdinand Hérold trans of Die versunkene Glocke by Gerhart Hauptmann. L'enfant et les sortilèges ["The Child and the Magic Spells"] (1925). Libretto Colette.

Stravinsky, Igor (Russia-Switzerland-US 1882-1971) Solovyei ["Le Rossignol"] (1914). Libretto Stravinsky with Stepan Mitusov, after "The Nightingale" by Hans Christian Andersen. Bayka/Renard ["The Fox"] (1922). Libretto C F Ramuz, after Russian folktales. Oedipus Rex ["Oedipus the King"] (1927). Libretto Jean Daniélou, trans Jean Cocteau, after Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles. Perséphone ["Persephone"] (1934). Libretto André Gide, after his poem, after "Homeric Hymn", anon. The Rake's Progress (1951). Libretto W H Auden and Chester Kallman, after engravings by William Hogarth. The Flood (1962). Libretto Robert Craft, after Chester and York mystery plays.

Falla, Manuel de (Spain-Argentina 1876-1946) El amor brujo ["Love the Magician"] (1915). Libretto Gregorio and María Martínez Sierra. Witch, will-o'-the-wisp. Fuego fatuo ["Will-o'-the-wisp"] (1919). Libretto María Martínez Sierra. Atlàntida ["Atlantis"] (1928-1946; completed 1961 by Ernesto Halffter, rev 1976). Libretto de Falla, after Jacint Verdaguer. Christopher Columbus (as a boy), Hercules, giant (Atlas), Archangel, Pleiades (transformed into stars), dragon, voice of prophecy, Cyclops, Titans.

Pizzetti, Ildebrando (Italy 1880-1968) Fedra ["Phaedra"] (1915). Libretto Gabriele d'Annunzio, after his play, after Phaedra by Seneca, after Hippolytus by Euripides.

Holst, Gustav (UK 1874-1934) Savitri (1916). Libretto Holst, after Mahabharata. The Perfect Fool (1923). Libretto Holst. Magician, elixir of youth, spirits of earth, fire and water.

Stanford, Charles Villiers (Ireland-UK 1852-1924) The Travelling Companion (1916; premiered 1925). Libretto Sir Henry Newbolt, after Hans Christian Andersen. Wizard, goblin, flying princess (no shadow), corpse temporarily reincarnated, goblins, resuscitated skeletons.

Kalomíris, Manólis (Greece 1883-1962) To Dakhtylídi tis Mánas ["The Mother's Ring"] (1917). Libretto Agnis Orfikós, after Yánnis Kambýsis. Destiny, nymphs, mountain nereid.

Braunfels, Walter (Germany 1882-1954) Die Vögel ["The Birds"] (1920). Libretto Braunfels, after Aristophanes. Galathea ["Galatea"] (1930). Libretto Braunfels, after marionette play by Silvia Baltus, after Ovid. Verkündigung ["Annunciation"] (1948). Libretto Jakob Hegner, from ?trans of L'annonce faite à Marie by Paul Claudel. A dead child is restored to life.

Paliashvili, Zachariy (Georgia 1871-1933) Abesalom da Eteri ["Abesalom and Eteri"] (1919). Libretto Petr Mirianashvili, after Georgian legend. Magic necklace.

Korngold, Erich Wolfgang (Austria-US 1897-1957) Die tote Stadt ["The Dead City"] (1920). Libretto Paul Schott [= composer and his father Julius], after Bruges-la-morte by Georges Rodenbach. Das Wunder der Heliane ["The Miracle of Heliane"] (1927). Libretto Hans Müller, after Die Heilige by Hans Kaltneker. Heliane's magical powers restore a dead man to life, then, through the power of love, he is able to restore her.

Alfano, Franco (Italy 1875-1954) La leggenda di Sakùntala ["The Legend of Sacuntala"] (1921; rev 1952 as Sakùntala). Libretto Alfano, after "Abhijnana-shakuntala" ["Sakuntala and the Ring of Recognition"] by Kalidasa (5th century). A curse can be lifted only by a ring, cloud of fire.

Hindemith, Paul (Germany-US 1895-1963) Das Nusch-Nuschi ["The Nush-Nushi"] (1921). Libretto Franz Blei, after Burmese fairytale. Cardillac (1926). Libretto Ferdinand Lion, after Das Fräulein von Scuderi by E T A Hoffmann. Hin und Zurück ["There and Back"] (1927). Libretto Marcellus Schiffer. A wise man reverses time; a dead woman is restored to life. Mathis der Maler ["Mathis the Painter"] (1938). Libretto Hindemith, after life and paintings of Matthias Grünewald. A recreation of the temptation of St Anthony. Die Harmonie der Welt ["The Harmony of the Universe"] (1957). Libretto Hindemith, after life of Johannes Kepler. Characters from Kepler's life appear as heavenly bodies, creating the music of the spheres. The Long Christmas Dinner (Das lange Weihnachtsmahl) (1961). Libretto Thornton Wilder, after own play. 90 Christmas dinners with four generations of a family are speeded up.

Schoeck, Othmar (Switzerland 1886-1957) Das Wandbild ["The Portrait"] (1921). Libretto Ferruccio Busoni, after Chinese fairytale. Venus (1922). Libretto Armin Rüeger, after La Vénus d'Ille by Prosper Mérimée. An unearthed statue of Venus temporarily comes to life. Penthesilea (1927). Libretto Schoeck, after Heinrich von Kleist, after Periegesis by Pausanias. Vom Fischer un syner Fru ["The Fisherman and his Wife"] (1930). Libretto Schoeck, after Philipp Otto Runge, ?after Grimm Brothers. A flounder fulfils his wife's wishes until they become too exorbitant, then all are annulled.

Milhaud, Darius (France-US 1892-1974) Les Euménides ["The Eumenides"] (1917-1922; premiered 1949). Libretto Paul Claudel, from trans of play by Aeschylus. Les malheurs d'Orphée ["The Sorrows of Orpheus"] (1926). Libretto Armand Lunel, after Ovid. The story is modified to contemporary equivalents, with no fantasy elements but a fox, wolf, bear and wild boar. L'enlèvement d'Europe ["The Abduction of Europa"] (1927). Libretto Henri Hoppenot, after Mopsus. L'abandon d'Ariane ["Ariadne Abandoned"] (1928). Libretto Henri Hoppenot, after Ovid. Ariadne is transformed into a constellation. La délivrance de Thésée ["The Deliverance of Theseus"] (1928). Libretto Henri Hoppenot, after Euripides. Christophe Colomb ["Christopher Columbus"] (1930). Libretto Paul Claudel, after his play. Médée ["Medea"] (1939). Libretto Madelaine Milhaud, after Euripides.

Respighi, Ottorino (Italy 1879-1936) La bella addormentata nel bosco ["Sleeping Beauty"] (1922; rev 1966 by Gian Luca Tocchi). Libretto Gian Bistolfi, after Perrault. Belfagor (1923). Libretto Claudio Guastalla, after Ercole Luigi Morselli, after Il demonio che prese moglie (Novella di Belfagor) by Niccolò Machiavelli. Church bells ring by themselves. La campana sommersa ["The Sunken Bell"] (1927). Libretto Claudio Guastalla, after Die versunkene Glocke by Gerhart Hauptmann. Maria egiziaca ["St Mary of Egypt"] (1932). Libretto Claudio Guastalla, after Le vite dei santi padri by Domenico Cavalca. Voice of an angel, voice from the sea, angels. La fiamma ["The Flame"] (1934). Libretto Claudio Guastalla, after Anne Pedersdotter by Hans Wiers-Jenssen. Women accused of witchcraft.

Vaughan Williams, Ralph (UK 1872-1958) The Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains (1922). Libretto Vaughan Williams, after The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan. The Poisoned Kiss, or The Empress and the Necromancer (1936). Libretto Evelyn Sharp, after The Poisoner Maid by Richard Garnett, Rappaccini's Daughter by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Magician, sorceress, witches, hobgoblins, magic philosopher's stone, witches, goblins, good and evil spirits, forest creatures. The Pilgrim's Progress (1951). Libretto Vaughan Williams, after John Bunyan.

Burian, Emil František (Czechoslovakia 1904-1959) Alladina a Palomid ["Alladina and Palomid"] (1923). Libretto anon, after Alladines et Palomides by Maurice Maeterlinck.

Novák, Vítûzslav (Czechoslovakia 1870-1949) Lucerna ["The Lantern"] (1923; rev 1930). Libretto Hanuš Jelínek, after Alois Jirásek. Water goblins, spirits, fairies, elves.

Roussel, Albert (France 1869-1937) La naissance de la lyre ["The Birth of the Lyre"] (1923). Libretto Théodore Reinach, after Ichneutae by Sophocles, "Homeric Hymn", anon.

Bantock, Granville (UK 1868-1946) The Seal-Woman (1924). Libretto Marjory Kennedy-Fraser, after Hebridean legend.

Křenek, Ernst (Austria-US 1900-1991) Die Zwingburg ["The Stronghold"] (1924). Libretto Franz Werfel. A statue of freedom kills its sculptor when the people reject freedom. Orpheus und Eurydike ["Orpheus and Eurydice"] (1926). Libretto from play by Oskar Kokoshka, after Ovid. Eurydice dies a second time through Orpheus' jealousy; as he is dying he rejects her ghost's entreaty for their reconciliation. Das geheime Königreich ["The Secret Kingdom"] (1928). Libretto Křenek. A queen is transformed into a tree. Leben des Orest ["The Life of Orestes"] (1930). Libretto Křenek, after Orestes by Euripides. Cefalo e Procri ["Cephalus and Procris"] (1934). Libretto Rinaldo Küfferle, after Ovid. Karl V ["Charles V"] (1938; rev 1954). Libretto Křenek, after life of Holy Roman Emperor. Pallas Athene weint ["Pallas Athene Weeps"] (1955). Libretto Křenek, after life and times of Socrates. Der goldene Bock ["The Golden Ram"] (1964). Libretto Křenek, after Argonautica by Apollonius of Rhodes. The tale of Jason and the Argonauts translated to 20th-century USA instead of the original Colchis.

Wellesz, Egon (Austria-UK 1885-1974) Alkestis ["Alcestis"] (1924). Libretto Wellesz, after Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after Euripides. Hercules brings Queen Alcestis back from Hades. Die Bakchantinnen ["The Bacchantes"] (1931). Libretto Wellesz, after The Bacchae by Euripides.

Malipiero, Gian Francesco (Italy 1882-1973) L'Orfeide ["The Orpheid"] (1925) A trilogy including #1 La morte delle maschere ["The Death of the Masks"]; libretto Malipiero, after "La favola d'Orfeo" by Angelo Poliziano, after Ovid; and #3 Orfeo, ovvero L'ottava canzone ["Orpheus, or the Eighth Song"]; libretto Malipiero, after Ovid. Merlino, mastro d'organi ["Merlin the Organ Master"] (1934). Libretto ?Malipiero. A magic organ kills its listeners.

Scott, Cyril (UK 1879-1970) The Alchemist (1925) Libretto Scott, after Indian folktale. The story is similar to Der Zauberlehrling ["The Sorcerer's Apprentice"] by Goethe, after "The Pathological Liar" by Lucian.

Sessions, Roger (US 1896-1985) The Fall of the House of Usher (1925). Libretto anon, after Edgar Allen Poe. The Trial of Lucullus (1947). Libretto H R Hays, from Das Verhör des Lukullus by Betrolt Brecht. A dead Roman general fails in his trial for entry to the Elysian Fields.

d'Albert, Eugen [Eugène] (UK-Germany 1864-1932) Der Golem ["The Golem"] (1926). Libretto Ferdinand Lion, after Jewish legend.

Szymanowski, Karol (Poland 1882-1937) Król Roger ["King Roger"] (1926). Libretto Szymanowski with Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, after composer's own novel Ephebos. Bacchus, dryads, satyrs.

Ibert, Jacques (France 1890-1962) Angélique (1927). Libretto Nino (Michel Veber). Devil. Persée et Andromède ["Perseus and Andromeda"] (1929). Libretto Nino (Michel Veber), after Moralités légendaires by Jules Laforgue, after Ovid.

Rodgers, Richard (US 1902-1979) A Connecticut Yankee (1927). Libretto Herbert Fields, lyric Lorenz Hart, after A Connecticut Yankee at the Court of King Arthur by Mark Twain. See also Arthur.

Toch, Ernst (Germany-US 1887-1964) Die Prinzessin auf der Erbse ["The Princess and the Pea"] (1927). Libretto Benno Elkan, after Hans Christian Andersen. The Last Tale (1960-1962). Libretto Melchior [Menyhért] Lengyel (trans Cornel Lengyel), after The Arabian Nights.

Weinberger, Jaromír (Czechoslovakia-US 1896-1967) Švanda dudák ["Schwanda the Bagpiper"] (1927). Libretto Miloš Kareš with Max Brod, after "The Bagpiper of Straconice" by Josef Kajetán Tyl, after Czech folktale. Queen Iceheart is temporarily released from enchantment.

Reutter, Hermann (Germany 1900-1985) Saul (1928). Libretto Reutter, after Alexander Lernet-Holenia, after the Bible (I Samuel 28). Witch of Endor summons up spirit of the prophet Samuel. Dr Johannes Faust (1936). Libretto Ludwig Andersen, after 16th-century puppet play. Odysseus (1942). Libretto Rudolf Bach, after Homer. Don Juan und Faust ["Don Juan and Faust"] (1950). Libretto Ludwig Andersen, after Christian Dietrich Grabbe. A conflation of the Don Juan and Faust stories. Hamlet (1980). Libretto Reutter, after William Shakespeare.

Honegger, Arthur (Switzerland-France 1892-1955) Amphion (1929). Libretto Paul Valéry, after Ovid. Stones build Thebes by magic. Jeanne (d'Arc) au bûcher ["Joan (of Arc) at the Stake"] (1938). Libretto Paul Claudel, after historical fact. Heavenly voices (Virgin Mary, St Margaret, St Catherine), Death, Stupidity, Pride, Avarice, Lust, Northern France (Heurtebise), Southern France (Mère aux Tonneaux), Porcus (pig), Asinus (ass), Pecus (sheep).

Martinů, Bohuslav (Czechoslovakia-France-US 1890-1959) Trojí prání, aneb vrtkavosti Iivota (Trois souhaits, ou Les vicissitudes de la vie) ["The Three Wishes, or the Whims of Life"] (?1929; premiered 1971). Libretto Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, after fairytale. A fairy grants three wishes. Hry o Marii ["The Plays of Mary/The Miracle of Our Lady"] (1935). In 4 parts, of which 2 are of fantasy interest: Pt 2 Mariken z Nimègue ["Marie of Nijmegen"]; libretto Henri Ghéon and Vilém Závada, after 15th-century Flemish liturgical drama; Pt 4 Sestra Paskalina ["Sister Pascalina"]; libretto Martinů, after Julius Zeyer and folktales. Dvakrát Alexandr (Alexandre bis) ["Alexander the Second"] (?1937. premiered 1964). Libretto André Wurmser. A speaking portrait. Julietta: Snár ["Julietta, or the Key to Dreams"] (1938). Libretto Martinů, after Juliette, ou La clé des songes by Georges Neveux. A Surrealist drama. Ariadna (Ariane) ["Ariadne"] (1961). Libretto Martinu, after Le voyage de Thésée by Georges Neveux, after Apollodorus.

Shostakovich, Dmitri (Russia 1906-1975) Nos ["The Nose"] (1929). Libretto Shostakovich with Aleksandr [?Arkadi] Preis, Georgi Yonin and Yevgyeniy Zamyatin, after Nikolai Gogol. A man's nose becomes a state councillor. Lyedi Makbyet Mtsyenskogo uyezda ["Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District"] (1934; rev 1956-1963 as Katerina Izmaylova, premiered 1962). Libretto Shostakovich with Aleksandr [?Arkadi] Preis, after Katerina Izmaylova by Nikolai Lyeskov, after Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Skazka o pope i rabotnike yego Balda ["The Tale of the Priest and his Servant Balda"] (?1933-6; premiered 1980). Libretto Sofia Khentova, after Aleksandr Pushkin. Devils.

Weill, Kurt (Germany-US 1900-1950) Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny ["The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny"] (1930). Libretto Bertolt Brecht. A metaphorical hell where everything is permitted. Der Silbersee (Ein Wintermärchen) ["The Silver Lake (A Winter's Tale)"] (1933). Libretto Georg Kaiser. Winter suddenly turns to Spring, but the lake's ice surface is still sufficiently thick to walk on. Die sieben Todsünden (der Kleinbürger) ["The Seven Deadly Sins (of the Petit-Bourgeois)"] (1933). Libretto Bertolt Brecht, after scenario by Edward James and Boris Kochno. Representations of Sloth, Pride, Anger, Gluttony, Lust, Covetousness, Envy. Der Weg der Verheißung ["The Road of Promise"] (1937; rev 1936 as The Eternal Road). Libretto from Der Weg der Verheißung by Franz Werfel. The Witch of Endor summons up spirit of prophet Samuel. Lady in the Dark (1941). Libretto Moss Hart, lyric Ira Gershwin. One Touch of Venus (1943). Libretto S J Perelman and Ogden Nash, lyric Ogden Nash, after The Tinted Venus by F J Anstey, after La Vénus d'Ille by Prosper Mérimée. A 3000-year old statue of Venus comes to life and has supernatural powers. Down in the Valley (1948). Libretto Arnold Sundgaard. Angels. Love Life (1948). Libretto Alan Jay Lerner. A married couple's lives extended over 150 years.

Benjamin, Arthur (Australia-UK 1893-1960) The Devil Take Her (1931). Libretto Alan Collard and John Gordon.

Bridge, Frank (UK 1879-1941) The Christmas Rose (1931). Libretto Bridge, after Margaret Kemp-Welch and Constance Cotterell. Tears cause roses to grow in the snow in non-Biblical nativity story.

Casella, Alfredo (Italy 1883-1947) La donna serpente ["The Snake Woman"] (1932). Libretto Cesare Lodovici, after Carlo Gozzi. The fairy of the title is transformed into an enormous snake and changed back again. La favola d'Orfeo ["The Story of Orpheus"] (1932). Libretto Corrado Pavolini, after Angelo Poliziano, after Ovid.

Hauer, Josef Matthias (Austria 1883-1959) Die schwarze Spinne ["The Black Spider"] (?1932; premiered 1966). Libretto Hans Schlesinger, after Jeremias Gotthelf. A poisonous spider emerges from a woman's cheek.

Schulhoff, Erwin (Czechoslovakia 1894-1942) Plameny ["The Flames"] (1932). Libretto Karel Josef Beneš, after El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de pietra by Tirso de Molina (attrib). Death, ghosts (including that of Don Juan), Harlequin.

Elgar, Edward (UK 1857-1934) The Spanish Lady (?1929-33; premiered 1994). Libretto Sir Barry Jackson, after The Devil Is an Ass by Ben Jonson.

Hanson, Howard (US 1896-1981) Merry Mount (1933). Libretto R L Stokes, after The Maypole of Merry Mount by Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Karel, Rudolf (Czechoslovakia 1880-1945) Smrt kmotřiaka ["Godmother Death"] (1933). Libretto Stanislav Lom, after Czech folktale. Tři (zlaté) vlasy dûda vševûda ["The Three (Golden) Hairs of Grandfather the Allknowing"] (1948). Libretto ?Karel with Zbynûk Vostrák.

Thomson, Virgil (US 1896-1989) Four Saints in Three Acts (1933). Libretto Gertrude Stein. The Mother of Us All (1947). Libretto Gertrude Stein, after life of US suffragette Susan B(rownwell) Anthony (1820-1906). Non-contemporaneous Americans, including Daniel Webster, John Adams, Andrew Johnson, Thaddeus Stevens, Ulysses S Grant, statue/ghost (Susan B Anthony), ghosts, composer and librettist (as narrators). Lord Byron (1972). Libretto Jack Larson, includes texts by Lord Byron, after life of the poet. Ghosts of poets, including Ben Jonson, John Milton, Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Rocca, Lodovico (Italy 1895-1986) Il Dibuk ["The Dybbuk"] (1934). Libretto Renato Simoni, after Shalom Anski, after Jewish legend. The possession by a dybbuk, which subsequently appears as a ghost.

Egk, Werner [Werner Mayer] (Germany 1901-1983) Die Zaubergeige ["The Magic Fiddle"] (1935). Libretto Egk with Ludwig Andersen, after marionette play by Graf Franz von Pocci. Peer Gynt (1938). Libretto Egk, after Henrik Ibsen. Circe (1948; rev 1966 as Siebzehn Tage und vier Minuten ["Seventeen Days and Four Minutes"]). Libretto Egk, after El mayor encanto, amor by Pedro Calderón, after Homer. Irische Legende ["Irish Legends"] (1955). Libretto Egk, after "The Countess Cathleen" by W B Yeats. The spirit of the damned Faust, demons (tiger, vulture, owls, snake, hyena-people), angels, empty souls. Die Verlobung in San Domingo ["The Betrothal in San Domingo"] (1963). Libretto Egk, after Heinrich von Kleist. Ghosts.

Lloyd, George (UK 1913-1998) Iernin (1935). Libretto William Lloyd. A fairy, previously turned to stone, is changed back again.

Enesco, Georges [George Enescu] (Romania-France 1881-1955) Oedipe ["Oedipus"] (1936). Libretto Edmond Fleg, after Oedipus Tyrannus and Oedipus Colonus by Sophocles and Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus.

Sutermeister, Heinrich (Switzerland 1910-1995) Die schwarze Spinne ["The Black Spider"] (1936). Libretto Albert Roesler, after Jeremias Gotthelf. A woman is transformed into a poisonous spider. Die Zauberinsel ["The Magic Island"] (1936). Libretto Sutermeister, after The Tempest by William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), spirit (Ariel), nymphs, goblins, spirits, winds, Time, Twilight. Niobe (1946). Libretto Peter Sutermeister, after Ovid. Apollo, Artemis, Niobe turned to stone, ghosts, voices of Nature. Der rote Stiefel ["The Red Boot"] (1951). Libretto Sutermeister, after Das kalte Herz by Wilhelm Hauff. Good spirit, evil spirit. Das Gespenst von Canterville ["The Canterville Ghost"] (1964) Libretto anon, after Oscar Wilde. Lively and mischievous ghost's despair at modern times and attitudes. Der Flaschenteufel ["The Bottle Imp"] (1971) Libretto anon, after Robert Louis Stevenson.

Ghedini, Giorgio Federico (Italy 1892-1965) Maria d'Alessandria ["Maria of Alexandria"] (1937). Libretto Cesare Meano, after ?Le vite dei santi padri by Domenico Cavalca. Voice of dead man, heavenly voices. Le baccanti ["The Bacchantes"] (1948). Libretto Tullio Pinelli, after The Bacchae by Euripides. King Cadmus is transformed into a dragon.

Moore, Douglas (US 1893-1969) The Headless Horseman (1937). Libretto Stephen Vincent Benét, after The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington Irving. The Devil and Daniel Webster (1939). Libretto Stephen Vincent Benét, after his story. A jury is formed of damned souls from American history.

Françaix, Jean (France 1912-1997) Le diable boiteux ["The Limping Devil"] (1938). Libretto Françaix, after Alain René Le Sage. The devil (Asmodeus) is released from imprisonment in a bottle.

Orff, Carl (Germany 1895-1982) Der Mond ["The Moon"] (1939). Libretto Orff, after Grimm Brothers. Four young men steal the moon from a neighbouring country and hang it in a tree; when they die a quarter of the moon is buried in each grave; the dead in the underworld are woken by the light and celebrate so noisily that St Peter notices, hurls a thunderbolt and hangs the moon in the sky. Die Bernauerin ["Agnes Bernauer"] (1947). Libretto Orff, after Bavarian ballad, after historical fact. Antigonae ["Antigone"] (1949). Libretto from Friedrich Hölderlin trans of Tiresias by Sophocles. Astutuli (eine bairische Komödie) ["Astutuli (A Bavarian Comedy)"] (1953). Libretto Orff, after medieval drama. Goblin (Goggolori), giant. Comoedia de Christi resurrectione (Ein Osterspiel) ["The Comedy of the Resurrection of Christ (An Easter Play)"] (1957). Libretto Orff. Oedipus der Tyrann ["Oedipus the King"] (1959). Libretto from Friedrich Hölderlin trans of Oedipus by Sophocles. Ludus de nato infante mirificus (Ein Weihnachtsspiel) ["The Miraculous Play of the Infant Birth (A Christmas Play)"] (1960). Libretto Orff. Prometheus. (1968). Libretto (in original Greek) from Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus. De temporum fine comoedia (Das Spiel vom Ende der Zeiten) ["The Play of the End of Time"] (1973). Libretto Orff, after Greek, Latin, German sources.

Rosenberg, Hilding (Sweden 1892-1985) Marionetter ["Marionettes"] (1939). Libretto K A Hagberg, trans of Los intereses creados by Jacinto Benavente. Commedia dell'Arte characters. Lycksalighetens ö ["The Isle of Bliss"] (1945). Libretto Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom. West wind (Zephyrus), wind mother, star mother, Time, Fairy Queen, Mopsus, Genius of Youth, nymphs, nightingales.

Dallapiccola, Luigi (Italy 1904-1975) Volo di notte ["Night Flight"] (1940). Libretto Dallapiccola, after Vol de nuit by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Disembodied voice of warning. Ulisse ["Ulysses/Odysseus"] (1968). Libretto Dallapiccola, after Homer via Dante, Alfred Lord Tennyson, James Joyce, Pier Paolo Pasolini. The Odyssey as metaphor for a journey of self-discovery.

Atterberg, Kurt (Sweden 1887-1974) Aladdin (1941). Libretto Atterberg with Margareta Atterberg, trans of Bruno Hard-Warden and Ignaz Welleminsky, after Thousand and One Nights. Stormen ["The Tempest"] (1948). Libretto Atterberg, after William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), spirit (Ariel), air spirits.

Britten, Benjamin (UK 1913-1976) Paul Bunyan (1941). Libretto W H Auden, after North American legend. Voice of giant (Paul Bunyan), heron, beetle, squirrel, Moon, Wind, geese, trees. Gloriana (1953). Libretto William Plomer, after Elizabeth and Essex by Lytton Strachey. Spirit of the Masque, phantom kings and queens; Time, Concord. The Turn of the Screw (1954). Libretto Myfanwy Piper, after Henry James. Noye's Fludde (1958). Libretto from Chester mystery play. A Midsummer Night's Dream (1960). Libretto Britten with Peter Pears, after William Shakespeare. Curlew River (1964). Libretto William Plomer, after 15th-century Noh play Sumidagawa by Juro Motomasa. Owen Wingrave (1971). Libretto Myfanwy Piper, after Henry James. Death in Venice (1973). Libretto Myfanwy Piper, after Der Tod in Venedig by Thomas Mann.

Arlen, Harold [Hyman Arluck] (US 1905-1986) The Wizard of Oz (1942). Libretto Frank Gabrielsen, after novel by L Frank Baum. Witches, land of Oz.

Martin, Frank (Switzerland 1890-1974) Le vin herbé ["The Magic Potion"] (1942). Libretto Martin, after Le roman de Tristan et Yseut by Joseph Bédier, after Tristram and Iseult legend. Der Sturm ["The Tempest"] (1956). Libretto Martin, after August Wilhelm von Schlegel trans of The Tempest by William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), spirit (Ariel), Iris, Ceres, Juno, nymphs, spirits.

Ullmann, Viktor (Austria 1898-circa 1944) Der Tod dankt ab oder Der Kaiser von Atlantis (Der Kaiser von Atlantis oder die Todverweigerung) ["Death Abdicates, or the Emperor of Atlantis (The Emperor of Atlantis, or Death's Refusal)"] (?1943-4; premiered 1975). Libretto Peter Kien. Death renounces his power; Pierrot is a satire on Adolf Hitler and genocide.

Pijper, Willem (Holland 1894-1947) Merlijn ["Merlin"] (1939-1946; premiered 1952). Libretto S Vestdijk, after Arthurian legend (see Arthur). Magician (Merlin), etc.

Menotti, Gian Carlo (Italy-US-UK 1911-2007) The Medium (1946). Libretto Menotti. A fraudulent medium begins to question her rejection of the supernatural.

Poulenc, Francis (France 1899-1963) Les mamelles de Tirésias ["The Breasts of Tiresias"] (1947). Libretto Poulenc, after Guillaume Apollinaire. Thérèse changes sex as Tirésias, her husband gives birth to more than 40,000 children.

Lane, Burton (US 1912-1997) Finian's Rainbow (1947). Libretto E Y Harburg and Fred Saidy, lyric Harburg. Magic crock of gold, leprechaun. See also Finian's Rainbow 1968.

Loewe, Frederick (Austria-US 1904-1988) Brigadoon (1947). Libretto Alan Jay Lerner. A "lost" Scottish village reappears for one day every century. See also Brigadoon 1954. Camelot (1960). Libretto Alan Jay Lerner, after The Once and Future King by T H White, after Arthurian legend (see Arthur). Magician (Merlyn; see Merlin), sprite (Nimuë), witch (Morgan Le Fay). See also Camelot.

Bliss, Arthur (UK 1891-1975) The Olympians (1949). Libretto J B Priestley, after legend. Greek gods regain their divinity once in every 100 years on midsummer night. Tobias and the Angel (1960). Libretto Christopher Hassall, ?after the Book of Tobit (Apocrypha).

Burkhard, Willy (Switzerland 1900-1955) Die schwarze Spinne ["The Black Spider"] (1949). Libretto Robert Faesi, after Georgette Boner, after Jeremias Gotthelf. A woman is transformed into poisonous spider.

Mohaupt, Richard (Germany-US-Germany 1904-1957) Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten ["The City Musicians of Bremen"] (1949). Libretto Theo Phil, after German legend. A city is saved by animal musicians (cockerel, hen, cat, dog, donkey, bear).

Andriessen, Hendrik (Holland 1892-1981) Philomena (1950). Libretto J Engelman, after Ovid.

Porter, Cole (1891-1964) Out of This World (1950). Libretto Dwight Taylor and Reginald Lawrence, partly after Amphitryon 38 by Jean Giraudoux, after Molière, after Amphitruo by Plautus; lyric Porter. Combines Greek gods and gangsters. Aladdin (1957). Libretto S J Perelman, after The Arabian Nights.

Dan, Ikuma (Japan 1924-2001) Yuzuru [The Silver Heron] (1951). Setting of Junji Kinoshita, after Japanese legend.

Dessau, Paul (Germany [GDR] 1894-1979) Das Verhör des Lukullus ["The Trial of Lucullus"] (1951; rev 1951 as Die Verurteilung des Lukullus ["The Condemnation of Lucullus"]). Libretto Bertolt Brecht. A dead Roman general fails in his trial for entry to Elysian Fields. (See also The Trial of Lucullus 1947 by Roger Sessions.) Lanzelot ["Lancelot"] (1969). Libretto Heiner Müller and Ginka Tsholakova, after Hans Christian Andersen and "The Dragon" by Yevgyeniy Schwarz. Dragon, cat, donkey, Hercules, Nemean lion, Lernean hydra, shark. Einstein (1974). Libretto Karl Mickel, after sketches by Bertolt Brecht, after life of Albert Einstein. Galileo Galilei, Giordano Bruno, Leonardo da Vinci. A crocodile symbolizes imperialism.

Schaeffer, Pierre (France 1910-1995) and Henry, Pierre (France 1927-    ) Orphée 51 ou Toute la lyre ["Orpheus 51, or All the Lyre"] (1951; rev 1953 as Orphée 53). Libretto Pierre Schaeffer, after Ovid.

Vlad, Roman (Romania-Italy 1919-2013) La storia di una mamma ["The Story of a Mother"] (1951). Libretto Gastone da Venezia, after Hans Christian Andersen.

Liebermann, Rolf (Switzerland 1910-1999) Leonore 40/45 ["Leonora 40/45"] (1952). Libretto Heinrich Strobel. A guardian angel. Die Schule der Frauen ["The School for Wives"] (1955). Libretto Heinrich Strobel, after L'école des femmes by Molière. Jean Baptiste Poquelin (Molière) intervenes several times in his own play to advise the actors.

Loesser, Frank (US 1910-1969) Hans Christian Andersen (1952). Libretto Moss Hart, after life and stories of Hans Christian Andersen.

Partch, Harry (US 1901-1974) Oedipus – A Music-Dance Drama (1952). Libretto Partch, after Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles. The Bewitched – A Dance Satire (1957). Libretto Partch. Revelation in the Courthouse Park (1961). Libretto Partch, after The Bacchae by Euripides. Delusion of the Fury – A Ritual of Drama and Delusion (1969). Libretto Partch, after Japanese and African legends.

Styne, Jule [Jules Stein] (UK-US 1905-1994) Peter Pan (1954). Lyric Betty Comden and Adolph Green, after J M Barrie.

Adler, Richard (US 1921-2012) and Ross, Jerry [Jerrold Rosenberg] (US 1926-1955) Damn Yankees (1955). Libretto George Abbott, Douglass Wallopp and Richard Bissel, after The Year the Yankees Lost the Pennant by Wallopp. The Faust story transferred to baseball.

Foss, Lukas (Germany-US 1922-2009) Griffelkin (1955). Libretto A Reed, after H Foss, after Grimm Brothers.

Tippett, Michael (UK 1905-1998) see Michael Tippett The Midsummer Marriage (1955). Libretto Tippett. Time is shifted at ruined temple to the Ancients. King Priam (1962). Libretto Tippett, after The Iliad by Homer and Euripides. The Ice Break (1977). Libretto Tippett. A psychedelic messenger in the Paradise Garden.

Henze, Hans Werner (Germany-Italy 1926-2012) König Hirsch ["King Stag"] (1956; rev 1962 as Il re cervo, oder Die Irrfahrten der Wahrheit ["King Stag, or The Vagaries of Truth"]). Libretto Heinz von Cramer, after Il re cervo by Carlo Gozzi. A king is transformed into a stag by a magic word and is changed back. A woman has three mirror images. Der junge Lord ["The Young Lord"] (1965). Libretto Ingeborg Bachmann, after the parable Der Scheik von Alessandria und seine Sklaven by Wilhelm Hauff. A monkey becomes human. The Bassarids ["Die Bassariden"] (1966). Libretto W H Auden and Chester Kallman, after The Bacchae by Euripides. Don Chisciotte della Mancia ["Don Quixote of La Mancha"] (1976). Libretto Giuseppe di Leva, after Giovanni Battista Lorenzi, after Cervantes. In old age, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza unhappily watch their younger selves and finally intervene. Pollicino (1980). Libretto Giuseppe di Leva, after Carlo Collodi, Grimm Brothers and Charles Perrault. The English Cat ["Die englische Katze"] (1983). Libretto Edward Bond, after Peines de coeur d'une chatte anglaise by Honoré de Balzac. Cats, dogs, birds, fox, sheep, mouse, Moon, stars, Royal Society for the Protection of Rats.

Bäck, Sven-Erik (Sweden 1919-1994) Tranfjädrarna ["The Crane Feathers"] (1957). Libretto Bertil Malmberg, after Junji Kinoshita, after Japanese legend. A bird-woman.

Fortner, Wolfgang (Germany 1907-1987) Bluthochzeit ["Blood Wedding"] (1957). Libretto Fortner, after Bodas de sangre by Federico García Lorca. Death, moon. In seinem Garten liebt Don Perlimplín Belisa ["The Love of Don Perlimplin and Belisa in his Garden"] (1962). Libretto Fortner, after El amor de don Perlimplín con Belisa en su jardín by Federico García Lorca. Goblins.

Tal, Josef [Joseph Gruenthal] (Germany-Israel 1910-2008) Sha'ul be En-Dor ["Saul at Ein Dor"] (1957). Libretto Rahel Vernon, after the Bible (I Samuel 28). Witch of Endor summons up spirit of the prophet Samuel. Ashmedai ["Asmodeus"] (1971). Libretto Israel Eliraz, after the Talmud. Devil (Asmodeus). Der Garten ["The Garden"] (1988). Libretto Israel Eliraz. Adam and Eve return to the Garden of Eden, after living for many years in "civilization".

Pauer, Jirí (Czechoslovakia 1919-2007) Ivanivr Slimeš ["The Garrulous Snail"] (1958). Libretto Míla Mellanov, after Joe Hloucha. Sea king's daughter, snail, monkey. Červen Karkulka ["Little Red Riding Hood"] (1960). Libretto Míla Mellanov, after Perrault.

Searle, Humphrey (UK 1915-1982) The Diary of a Madman (1958). Libretto anon, after Nikolai Gogol. Hamlet (1968). Libretto Searle, after William Shakespeare.

Glanville-Hicks, Peggy (Australia-US 1912-1990) The Transposed Heads (1954). Libretto Glanville-Hicks, after The Transposed Heads by Thomas Mann. The Glittering Gate (1961). Libretto Lord Dunsany. Nausicaa (1961). Libretto A Reid and Robert Graves, after Homer's Daughter by Graves.

Johanson, Sven-Erik (Sweden 1919-1997) Bortbytingarna ["The Changelings"] (1959). Libretto Johanson, after Helena Nyblom. Sagan om ringen ["The Tale of the Rings"] (1972). Libretto Anderz Harning, after The Lord of the Rings by J R R Tolkien.

Maconchy, Elizabeth (UK 1907-1994) The Sofa (1959). Libretto Ursula Vaughan Williams, after Le sopha by Claude Prosper de Crébillon fils. A prince is transformed into a sofa but changed back. The Birds (1968). Libretto anon, after Aristophanes.

Wagner-Régeny, Rudolf (Hungary-Germany [GDR] 1903-1969) Prometheus (1959). Libretto Wagner-Régeny, after Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus. Das Bergwerk zu Falun ["The Mine at Falun"] (1961). Libretto Wagner-Régeny, after Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after Die Bergwerke zu Falun by E T A Hoffmann.

Killmayer, Wilhelm (Germany 1927-    ) La buffonata ["Buffoonery"] (1960). Libretto Tankred Dorst, after Commedia dell'Arte characters. La tragedia di Orfeo ["The Tragedy of Orpheus"] (1961). Libretto anon, after La favola d'Orfeo by Angelo Poliziano, after Ovid. Yolimba oder die Grenzen der Magie ["Yolimba, or The Limits of Magic"] (1964). Libretto Killmayer with Tankred Dorst. Those killed by a magician's creation, Yolimba, are restored to life on the magician's death.

Suchoň, Eugen (Czechoslovakia [Slovakia] 1908-1993) Svätopluk ["Svatopluk"] (1960) Libretto Suchoa with Ivan Stodola and Jela Kraméryov. Magicians.

Castiglioni, Niccolò (Italy 1932-1996) Attraverso lo specchio ["Through the Looking Glass"] (1961). Libretto Alberto Ca' Zorzi Noventa, after Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-glass by Lewis Carroll. Jabberwocky (1962). Libretto anon, after Lewis Carroll.

Klebe, Giselher (Germany 1925-2009) Alkmene ["Alcmena"] (1961). Libretto Klege, after Amphitryon by Heinrich von Kleist, after Molière, after Amphitruo by Plautus. Das Märchen von der schönen Lilie ["The Tale of Beautiful Lily"] (1969). Libretto Klebe, after Johann Wolfgang Goethe. When they are touched by Lilie, living people and animals die and dead ones come to life.

Maderna, Bruno (Italy-Germany 1920-1973) Don Perlimplin (1961). Libretto Maderna, after El amor de don Perlimplín con Belisa en su jardín by Federico García Lorca. Goblins. Hyperion (1964). Libretto Maderna with Virginio Puecher, after Hyperion, oder der Eremit in Griechenland by Friedrich Hölderlin, with phonemes by Hans G Helms.

Ward, Robert (US 1917-2013) The Crucible (1961). Libretto Bernard Stambler, after play by Arthur Miller about 1692 Salem witchcraft trials.

Zafred, Mario (Italy 1922-1987) Amleto ["Hamlet"] (1961). Libretto Zafred with Lilyan Zafred, after William Shakespeare.

Moroi, Makoto (Japan 1930-2013) Yamamba ["A Mountain Witch"] (1962). Libretto anon, after Japanese legend. Gyosha Paeton ["Phaethon, the Coachman"] (1965). Libretto anon, after Ovid.

Cikker, Ján (Czechoslovakia [Slovakia] 1911-1989) Veaer, noc a ráno (Mr Scrooge) ["Evening, Night and Morning"] (1963). Libretto Cikker with Ján Smrek, after A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. Zo Iivota hmyzu ["The Insect Play"] (1987). Libretto Cikker, after Karel and Josef Čapek.

Kelterborn, Rudolf (Switzerland 1931-    ) Die Erettung Thebens ["The Rescue of Thebes"] (1963). Libretto Kelterborn, after Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus. Kaiser Jovian ["Emperor Jovian"] (1967). Libretto Herbert Meier. Ein Engel kommt nach Babylon ["An Angel Comes to Babylon"] (1977). Libretto Friedrich Dürrenmatt, after his play. Ophelia (1984). Libretto Kelterborn with Herbert Meier, after Hamlet by William Shakespeare.

de Leeuw, Ton (Holland 1926-1996) Alcestis (1963). Libretto de Leeuw, after Hercules by Euripides. De droom ["The Dream"] (1965). Libretto de Leeuw, from Haiku texts, after Chinese story. A magic pillow shows future life in a dream.

Argento, Dominick (US 1927-    ) The Masque of Angels (1964). Libretto John Olon-Scrymgeour. Cherubim, seraphim, powers, virtues. The Voyage of Edgar Allen Poe (1976). Libretto Charles Nolte. Auguste Dupin, ghost ship; includes vocal setting of Edgar Allen Poe's "Annabel Lee".

Bentzon, Niels Viggo (Denmark 1919-2000) Faust III (1964). Libretto Bentzon with Kjeld Kromann, after Goethe, Ulysses by James Joyce and The Trial by Franz Kafka. Mephistoples (including as Nostradamus), Faust, Leopold Bloom, Josef K Die Automaten ["The Automata"] (1974). Libretto anon, after Die Automate by E T A Hoffmann.

Felciano, Richard (US 1930-    ) Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1964). Libretto anon, after Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, anon (14th century) (see Gawain). See also Arthur.

Szokolay, Sándor (Hungary 1931-2013) Vérnász ["Blood Wedding"] (1964). Libretto Gyula Illyés, after Bodas de sangre by Federico García Lorca. Hamlet (1968). Libretto Szokolay, after William Shakespeare.

Wimberger, Gerhard (Austria 1923-2016) Dame Kobold ["The Lady Goblin"] (1964). Libretto Wimberger with Wolfgang Rinnert, after Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after La dama duende by Pedro Calderón.

Bennett, Richard Rodney (UK-US 1936-2012) The Mines of Sulphur (1965). Libretto Beverley Cross. Plague-carrying ghosts.

Blomdahl, Karl-Birger (Sweden 1916-1968) Herr von Hancken ["Master von Hancken"] (1965). Libretto Erik Johan Lindegren, after Hjalmar Bergman. Death, devil, God.

Hanuš, Jan (Czechoslovakia [Czech Republic] 1915-2004) Pochode Prométheova ["The Torch of Prometheus"] (1965). Libretto ?Jaroslav Pokorn, after Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus. A modern Prometheus is an atomic scientist who defies his government.

Reimann, Aribert (Germany 1936-    ) Ein Traumspiel ["A Dream Play"] (1965). Libretto Carla Henius, after Ett drömspel by August Strindberg. The voice of god Indra. Melusine (1971). Libretto Claus H Henneberg, after Iwan Goll. Nature spirits, magic park. Die Gespenstersonate ["The Ghost Sonata"] (1984). Libretto Reimann with Uwe Schendel, after Spöksonaten by August Strindberg. A mummy, the living dead. Troades ["The Trojan Women"] (1986). Libretto Reimann and Gerd Albrecht, after Die Troerinnen by Franz Werfel, after Euripides.

Sitsky, Larry (Russia-Australia 1934-    ) The Fall of the House of Usher (1965). Libretto Gwen Harwood, after Edgar Allen Poe. The Golem (?1980; premiered 1993). Libretto Gwen Harwood, after Jewish legend. A clay figure of a golem gradually comes to life.

Williamson, Malcolm (Australia-UK 1931-2003) The Happy Prince (1965). Libretto Williamson, after Oscar Wilde. Speaking statue of prince, swallow, angels. The Growing Castle (1968). Libretto Williamson, after Ett drömspel ["A Dream Play"] by August Strindberg. Lucky-Peter's Journey (1969). Libretto Edmund Tracey, after Lycko-Pers resa August Strindberg. Fairy, saints, gnome, birds, rats; starboys, land and sea, monsters, animals, trees, flowers, ocean waves.

Yun, Isang (Korea-Germany 1917-1995) Der Traum des Liu-Tung ["The Dream of Liu-Tung"] (1965). Libretto Hans Rudelberger and Winfried Bauernfeind, after drama by Ma Chi-yuan (14th century). An Immortal's dream spiritual pilgrimage lasts 18 years. Die Witwe des Schmetterlings ["The Butterfly's Widow"] (1965). Libretto ?Hans Rudelberger and Winfried Bauernfeind. A dead man is transformed into a butterfly. Geisterliebe ["Spirit Love"] (1971). Libretto Harald Kunz. Sim Tjong (1972). Libretto Harald Kunz. Angel sent to earth, her heavenly mother, a dragon king, heavenly spirits.

Crosse, Gordon (UK 1937-    ) Purgatory (1966). Libretto Crosse, after W B Yeats. Ghosts. Potter Thompson (1975). Libretto Alan Garner. Two children from the past, knights sleeping in a cave until they are needed.

Marco, Tomás (Spain 1942-    ) Jabberwocky (1966). Libretto anon, after Lewis Carroll.

Ginastera, Alberto (Argentina 1916-1983) Bomarzo (1967). Libretto Manuel Mujica Láinez, after his novel. Stone giants come to life in a vision.

Lidholm, Ingvar (Sweden 1921-    ) Holländarn ["The Dutchman"] (1967). Libretto Herbert Grevenius, after dramatic fragment by August Strindberg. Ett drömspel ["A Dream Play"] (1992). Libretto Lidholm, after August Strindberg. Damned souls, voice of god Indra.

Birtwistle, Harrison (UK 1934-    ) Punch and Judy (1968). Libretto Stephen Pruslin, after traditional puppet play. Down by the Greenwood Side (1969). Libretto Michael Nyman, after mummer's play, Ballad of the Cruel Mother. Father Christmas, St George, Green Man The Mask of Orpheus (1986). Libretto Peter Zinovieff, after Ovid and other versions of the legend. Yan Tan Tethera (1986). Libretto Tony Harrison. Devil (the Bad'un), sheep. Gawain (1991; rev 1994). Libretto David Harsent, after Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, anon (14th century) (see Gawain). Arthur, Green Knight. The Second Mrs Kong (1994). Libretto Russell Hoban. Anubis, Eurydice, head of Orpheus, Vermeer, Pearl (in Vermeer's painting), Paganini, Kong, Death of Kong, Monstrous Messenger, Mirror, Doubt, Fear, Despair, Terror, the Dead.

Eaton, John (US 1935-2015) Heracles (1968). Libretto M Fried, after Greek legend. The Tempest (1985). Libretto Andrew Porter, after William Shakespeare. Magician (Prospero), spirit (Ariel).

Rota, Nino (Italy 1911-1979) Aladino e la lampada magica ["Aladdin and the Magic Lamp"] (1968). Libretto Vinci Verginelli, after The Arabian Nights. La visita meravigliosa ["The Miraculous Visit"] (1970). Libretto anon, after H G Wells.

Kelemen, Milko (Yugoslavia/Croatia 1924-    ) Der Belagerungszustand ["The State of Siege"] (1969) Libretto Kelemen with Joachim Hess, after La Peste by Albert Camus.

Lorentzen, Bent (Denmark 1935-    ) Euridice ["Eurydice"] (1969). Libretto Lorentzen, after woodcuts by Palle Nielsen, after Ovid.

Lutyens, Elizabeth (UK 1906-1983) Isis and Osiris (1969). Libretto Lutyens, after Plutarch.

McCabe, John (UK 1939-2015) The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1969). Libretto Gerald Larner, after the Narnia series by C S Lewis.

Penderecki, Krzysztof (Poland 1933-    ) Diably z Loudun (Die Teufel von Loudun) ["The Devils of Loudun"] (1969). Libretto, after John Whiting, after Aldous Huxley. Devilish possession; demon Asmodeus speaks through Prioress. Raj utracony ["Paradise Lost"] (1978). Libretto Christopher Fry, after John Milton. Milton (narrator), Adam, Eve, Satan, Beelzebub, Moloch, Belial, Mammon, Death, Sin, voice of God, archangels, angels, Hell, Garden of Eden.

Pousseur, Henri (Belgium 1929-2009) Votre Faust ["Your Faust"] (1969). Libretto Michel Butor, after various versions of Faust story. Composer Henri (= Faust) is offered unlimited resources for his opera. The title refers to Mon Faust by Paul Valéry.

Berio, Luciano (Italy 1925-2003) Opera (1970). Libretto Berio with Furio Colombo, Umberto Eco and Susan Yankowitz, after Alessandro Striggio. A combination of elements of the Orpheus myth with 20th-century fact. Un re in ascolto ["A King Listens"] (1984). Libretto Berio, after Italo Calvino, after W H Auden, Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter and The Tempest by William Shakespeare. Prospero is a theatrical impresario.

Bricusse, Leslie (UK 1931-    ) Scrooge (1970; rev 1992 for the stage) (1970). Libretto Bricusse with Ian Fraser and Herbert W Spencer, after A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens.

Christou, Jani (Greece 1926-1970) Oresteia (1967-1970). Libretto anon, after dramatic trilogy by Aeschylus.

Rautavaara, Einojuhani (Finland 1928-2016) Apollon contra Marsyas ["Apollo versus Marsyas"] (1970). Libretto Bengt V Wall, after Greek legend.

Schuller, Gunther (US 1925-2015) The Fisherman and His Wife (1970). Libretto John Updike, after Grimm Brothers.

Kagel, Mauricio (Argentina-Germany 1931-2008) Staatstheater ["State Theatre"] (1971). Libretto Kagel. A parody of traditional operas, it includes mixture of recognizable existing costumes and props. Mare Nostrum: Entdeckung, Befriedung und Konversion des Mittelmeerraumes durch einen Stamm aus Amazonien ["Our Sea: The Discovery, Liberation and Conversion of the Mediterranean Area by an Amazonian Tribe"] (1975) Libretto Kagel. A reversal of Columbus's discovery of the Americas. Die Erschöpfung der Welt ["The Exhaustion of the World"] (1980). Libretto Kagel. A reversal of the Creation. Aus Deutschland ["From Germany"] (1981). Libretto Kagel, after German Romantic poems and Lieder. Franz Schubert, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, dogs, characters from well-known Lieder. Leiermann (and wife), Poetess, Night, Ship's Captain, Edward (and mother), suit of armour, grenadiers, Black King, Death and the Maiden, Rat Catcher, Hyperion, fortune-teller, nightingale, Music, youth, Mignon and Doppelgänger, rats. La trahison orale (Der mündliche Verrat) ["Oral Treason"] (1983). Libretto Kagel, after Les Evangiles du Diable, selon la croyance populaire by Claude Seignolle. "A musical epic on the devil" (stories from oral tradition of encounters with the devil; exorcism, preventative incantation).

Pashchenko, Andrei (Russia 1883-1972) Master i Margarita ["The Master and Margarita"] (1971). Libretto anon, after Mikhail Bulgakov. Devil, female demon, cat demon.

Bussotti, Sylvano (Italy 1931-    ) Lorenzaccio (1972). Libretto Bussotti, after Alfred de Musset, et al. Alfred de Musset and George Sand transformed into Eros and Death. Nottetempo (1976). Libretto Bussotti with Romano Amidei, after Legenda aurea (13th century) by Archbishop Jacobus de Voragine (Jacopo da Varagine), Philoctetes by Sophocles and life of Michelangelo. Michelangelo (= Philoctetes), ghosts from his past.

Davies, Peter Maxwell (UK 1934-2016) Taverner (1972). Libretto Davies, after life of English composer John Taverner (circa 1490-1545). Death, Antichrist, God the Father, Archangels, St John, Virgin Mary, demons. The Martyrdom of St. Magnus (1977). Libretto Davies, after Magnus by George Mackay Brown. See Time Abyss; Anachronism. The Two Fiddlers (1978). Libretto Davies, after George Mackay Brown. A fiddler loses 21 years, after one day with the trolls. Cinderella (1980). Libretto Davies, after Cendrillon by Charles Perrault. Cat (instead of fairy). The Lighthouse (1980). Libretto Davies, after historical fact. Ghosts. Resurrection (1988). Libretto Davies. Zeus (or Hera), Pluto, Apollo, Antechrist, cats, demons.

Gruber, H K [Heinz Karl] (Austria 1943-    ) Gomorra (1972). Libretto Richard Bletschacher. Gloria – A Pigtale (1994). Libretto Rudolf Herfurtner. The world inhabited by pigs.

Slonimsky, Sergei (Russia 1932-    ) Master i Margarita ["The Master and Margarita"] (?1972-3; premiered 1989). Libretto Yuri Dimitrin and V Fialkovsky, after Mikhail Bulgakov. Devil, female demon, cat demon. Hamlet (1990). Libretto anon, after William Shakespeare.

Kox, Hans (Holland 1930-    ) Dorian Gray (1973). Libretto Kox, after The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde.

Matthus, Siegfried (Germany [GDR] 1934-    ) Omphale (1973). Libretto Peter Hacks, after ?Apollodorus.

Nørgård, Per (Denmark 1932-    ) Gilgamesh (1973). Libretto Nørgård, after Sumerian legend.

Sciarrino, Salvatore (Italy 1947-    ) Amore e Psiche ["Cupid and Psyche"] (1973). Libretto A Pes, after Apuleius. Lohengrin (1983). Libretto Sciarrino, after Lohengrin fils de Parsifal by Jules Laforgue, after historical fact and legend. Lohengrin flies to the moon on a cushion transformed into a swan. Perseo e Andromeda ["Perseus and Andromeda"] (1991). Libretto Sciarrino, after Moralités légendaires by Jules Laforgue, after Ovid.

Werle, Lars Johan (Sweden 1926-2001) Medusan och djävulen ["Medusa and the Devil"] (1973). Libretto Werle, after Elsa Grave. Animalen ["The Animals"] (1979). Libretto Tage Danielsson. A congress is held by the animals to save mankind from self-destruction.

Knaifel, Aleksandr (Russia 1943-    ) The Canterville Ghost (1974). Libretto T Kramarova, after Oscar Wilde. A lively and mischievous ghost's despair at modern times and attitudes.

Kunad, Rainer (Germany [GDR] 1936-1995) Sabellicus (1974). Libretto Kunad, after The Tragicall History of Dr Faustus by Christopher Marlowe by Christopher Marlowe et al. A Faustian pact the ruling feudal system rather than with the Devil. (Georgius Sabellicus was the first to adopt the Faust name.) Amphitryon (1984). Libretto Ingo Zimmermann, after ?Heinrich von Kleist, after Molière, after Amphitruo by Plautus. Der Meister und Margarita ["The Master and Margarita"] (1986). Libretto Heinz Czechowski, after Mikhail Bulgakov.

Musgrave, Thea (UK-US 1928-    ) The Voice of Ariadne (1974). Libretto Amalia Elguera, after The Last of the Valerii by Henry James. A count is haunted by voice of Ariadne (on tape), after unearthing of plinth for her statue; the countess takes on her identity and becomes the missing statue. A Christmas Carol (1979). Libretto Musgrave, after Charles Dickens. An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge (1982). Libretto ?Musgrave, after Ambrose Bierce. See also Posthumous Fantasy.

Smalls, Charlie (US 1943-1987) The Wiz (1974). Lyric Small, libretto William F Brown, after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L Frank Baum. Teenagers put on their own performance of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

Bialas, Günter (Germany 1907-1995) Der gestiefelte Kater, oder Wie man das Spiel spielt ["Puss in Boots, or How to Play the Game"] (1975). Libretto Tankred Dorst, after Ludwig Tieck.

Zimmermann, Udo (Germany [GDR] 1943-    ) Der Schuhu und die fliegende Prinzessin ["The Owl and the Flying Princess"] (1975). Libretto Peter Hacks.

Andriessen, Louis (Holland 1939-    ) Orpheus (1977). Libretto Lodewijk de Boer, after Ovid.

Balassa, Sándor (Hungary 1935-    ) Az ajtón kivül ["The Man Outside"] (1977). Libretto Géza Fodor, after Draußen vor der Tür by Wolfgang Borchert.

Ligeti, György (Hungary-Germany 1923-2006) Le grand macabre (1978). Libretto Ligeti with Michael Meschke, after La balade du grand macabre by Michel de Ghelderode.

Rihm, Wolfgang (Germany 1952-    ) Faust und Yorick ["Faust and Yorick"] (1977). Libretto Frithjof Haas, after Faust et Yorick by Jean Tardieu. Faust seeks enlightenment in analysing Yorick's skull. Jakob Lenz (1979). Libretto Michael Fröhling, after Lenz by Georg Büchner. A schizophrenic poet experiences imaginary voices and apparitions. Die Hamletmaschine ["The Hamlet Machine"] (1987). Libretto Rihm, after Heiner Müller, after William Shakespeare. Oedipus (1987). Libretto Rihm, after Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles, Oedipus, Reden des letzten Philosophen mit sich selbst by Friedrich Nietzsche, Oedipuskommentar by Heiner Müller.

Bedford, David (UK 1937-2011) The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1978). Libretto Bedford, after Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The Death of Baldur (1979). Libretto Terry Bragg, after Prose (Younger) Edda by Snorri Sturluson. Fridiof's Saga (1980). Libretto Terry Bragg, after Prose (Younger) Edda Snorri Sturluson. The Ragnarok (1983). Libretto Terry Bragg, after Poetic (Elder) Edda, anon and Prose (Younger) Edda Snorri Sturluson.

Blackford, Richard (UK 1954-    ) Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1978). Libretto John Emlyn Edwards, after Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, anon (14th century) (see Gawain). Arthur, giant (Green Knight), sorceress (Morgan Le Fay). Metamorphoses (1983). Libretto John Emlyn Edwards, after Ovid. Ovid (narrator), Persephone (Proserpine), Ceres (Demeter), Arethusa, Phaethon, Phoebus, Jupiter, Mercury, tree nymph, flying chariot; several transformations. Gawain and Ragnall (1985). Libretto Ian Barnett, after Arthurian legend (see Arthur), forest sprites.

Boyd, Anne (Australia/UK 1946-    ) The Little Mermaid (1978). Libretto Robin Lee, after Hans Christian Andersen.

Johnson, Robert Sherlaw (UK 1932-2000) The Lambton Worm (1978). Libretto Anne Ridler.

Bekku, Sadao (Japan 1922-2012) Aoi no Ue ["Princess Hollyhock"] (1979). Libretto Matsuko Suzuki, after two Noh plays, after Genji monogatari by Lady Murasaki.

Cowie, Edward (UK-?Australia 1943-    ) Commedia (1979). Libretto David Starsmeare, after Commedia dell'Arte characters.

Hiller, Wilfried (Germany 1941-    ) Der Lindwurm und der Schmetterling oder Der seltsame Tauch (1979). Libretto Michael Ende. Niobe (1979). Libretto Hiller with Elisabeth Woska, after dramatic fragment "Niobe, Tantalus" by Aeschylus. Tranquilla Trampeltreu, die beharrliche Schildkröte (1981). Libretto Michael Ende. Die Ballade von Norbert Nackendick oder Das nackte Nashorn (1981). Libretto Michael Ende. Die Fabel vom Elefanten Filemon Faltenreich oder die Fussballweltmeisterschaft der Fliegen (1984). Libretto Michael Ende. Der Goggolori ["The Goblin"] (1985). Libretto Michael Ende, after folktale. Die Jagd nach dem Schlarg (1987). Libretto Michael Ende, after The Hunting of the Snark by Lewis Carroll. Das Traumfresserchen (?1990). Libretto Michael Ende. Der Rattenfänger (Ein Hamelner Totentanz) (?1993). Libretto ?Michael Ende, ?after "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" by Robert Browning.

Glass, Philip (US 1937-    ) Satyagraha (1980). Libretto Glass with Constance de Jong, after Bhagavad-Gita. Krishna, Arjuna, Mahatma Gandhi, Leo Tolstoy, Rabindranath Tagore, Martin Luther King. The Juniper Tree (1985), with Robert Moran. Libretto Arthur Yorinks, after Grimm Brothers. The Fall of the House of Usher (1988). Libretto Arthur Yorinks, after Edgar Allen Poe.

Schat, Peter (Holland 1935-2003) Aap verslaat de knekelgeest ["Monkey Subdues the White-Bone Demon"] (1980). Libretto Schat, after 17th-century picture novel by Chao Hung-pen and Chien Hsiao-tai, after Journey to the West by Wu Cheng-en and Wang Hsing-pei. Magic, immortal, demon (self-transformations), evil fairy, monsters, monkey warriors.

Vivier, Claude (Canada 1948-1983) Kopernikus (Rituel de Mort) ["Copernicus: Death Ritual"] (1980). Libretto Vivier. Experiences, after death, including sorceress, Merlin, Queen of the Night, Tristan, Isolde, Master of the Waters, Mozart, Copernicus, Lewis Carroll.

Lloyd Webber, Andrew (UK 1948-    ) Cats (1981). Libretto Trevor Nunn and Richard Stilgoe, after Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T S Eliot. Starlight Express (1984). Libretto ?, lyric Richard Stilgoe. The Phantom of the Opera (1986). Libretto Lloyd Webber with Richard Stilgoe, lyric Charles Hart and Stilgoe, after Le Fantôme de l'Opéra by Gaston Leroux.

Stockhausen, Karlheinz (Germany 1928-2007) Licht (seven operas, from 1977 and continuing). Libretto Stockhausen, partly after The Urantia Book, anon. Principal protagonists: archangel Michael, Lucifer, Eve (each represented by a singer, an instrumentalist and a dancer). Donnerstag aus Licht (1981), Samstag aus Licht (1984), Montag aus Licht (1988), Dienstag aus Licht (1993), Freitag aus Licht (1996), Mittwoch aus Licht (written 1995-1997; first staged in full 2012) and «Sonntag aus Licht» (written 1998-2003; first staged in full 2011).

Burgon, Geoffrey (UK 1941-2010) Orpheus (1982). Libretto Peter Porter, after Ovid.

Menken, Alan (US 1949-    ) Little Shop of Horrors (1982). Libretto Howard Ashman, after screenplay by Roger Corman and Charles Griffith. Filmed as The Little Shop of Horrors (1986).

Schwertsik, Kurt (Austria 1935-    ) Das Märchen von Fanferlieschen Schönefuáchen ["The Wondrous Tale of Fanferlizzy Sunnyfeet"] (1983). Libretto Karin and Thomas Körner, after Clemens von Brentano. A goat is transformed into a girl; a castle in the air is built in one night.

Bryars, Gavin (UK 1943-    ) Medea (1984). Libretto Robert Wilson (primarily in Greek, plus French and English), after Euripides.

Knussen, Oliver (UK 1952-    ) Where the Wild Things Are (1984). Libretto Maurice Sendak, after his book. Higglety Pigglety Pop!, or There Must be More to Life (1990). Libretto Maurice Sendak, after his book.

Nono, Luigi (Italy 1924-1990) Prometeo (1984). Libretto ?Nono with Massimo Cacciari, after Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus.

Oliver, Stephen (UK 1950-1992) Beauty and the Beast (1984). Libretto Oliver, based on Carlo Collodi's translation of La Belle et la Bête by Mme J M Leprince de Beaumont.

Shibata, Minao (Japan 1916-1996) El divino Orfeo ["The Divine Orpheus"] (1984). Libretto anon, after Ovid.

Weir, Judith (UK 1954-    ) The Black Spider (1984). Libretto Weir, after Die schwarze Spinne by Jeremias Gotthelf. A poisonous spider emerges from woman's cheek. Heaven Ablaze in His Breast (1990). Libretto Weir, after Der Sandmann by E T A Hoffmann. The Vanishing Bridegroom (1990). Libretto Weir after J F Campbell's Popular Tales of the West Highlands, Pt 2 "The Disappearance" (a man loses 20 years in magic hill) and Pt 3 "The Stranger". Scipio's Dream (1991). Libretto ?Weir, after Pietro Metastasio, after De republica (Somnium Scipionis) by Scipio. Fortune, Constancy, young Mozart, flying London taxi, inhabitants of Heaven working out in a gymnasium. Blond Eckbert (1994). Libretto Weir, after Thomas Carlyle 's trans of Der blonde Eckbert by Ludwig Tieck.

Boehmer, Konrad (Germany-Holland 1941-2014) Dr Faustus (1985). Libretto Hugo Claus, after earliest Faust stories. Homunculus created by Faust; apparition of Virgin Mary; a visit to future; but no Mephistopheles.

Bozay, Attila (Hungary 1939-1999) Csongor és Tünde ["Csongor and Tünde"] (1985). Libretto Bozay, after Mihály Vörösmarty.

Barker, Paul (UK 1956-    ) Phantastes (1986). Libretto Barker, after George MacDonald.

Jolas, Betsy (US-France 1926-    ) Le Cyclope ["The Cyclops"] (1986). Libretto anon, after Cyclops by Euripides.

Cage, John (US 1912-1992) Europeras #1 and #2 (1987), Europeras #3 and #4 (1990), Europera #5 (1991). Scenario Cage. Arias and costumes collaged from classical operas.

Fénelon, Philippe (France 1952-    ) Le chevalier imaginaire ["The Imaginary Chevalier"] (?1987). Libretto anon, after Cervantes and Die Wahrheit über Sancho Pansa by Franz Kafka. In a deconstruction of Cervantes' story, Don Quixote is imagined by Sancho Panza.

Finnissy, Michael (UK 1946-    ) The Undivine Comedy (1988). Libretto Finnissy, after Nieboska Komedia by Zygmunt Krasiński.

Turnage, Mark-Antony (UK 1960-    ) Greek (1988). Libretto Turnage with Jonathan Moore, after Stephen Berkoff, after Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles.

Bergman, Erik (Finland 1911-2006) Der sjungande trädet ["The Singing Tree"] (1989). Libretto Bo Carpelen, after "Prince Hatt in the Underworld", anon.

Casken, John (UK 1949-    ) The Golem (1989). Libretto Casken with Pierre Audi, based on the legend of the Golem. A clay figure of a golem gradually comes to life.

Höller, York [Georg] (Germany 1944-    ) Der Meister und Margarita (1989). Libretto Höller, after The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov.

Manzoni, Giacomo (Italy 1932-    ) Doktor Faustus (1989). Libretto Manzoni, after Thomas Mann. Faust is a composer.

Teitelbaum, Richard (US 1939-    ) Golems (1989). Libretto Teitelbaum, after Paul Wegener's movie Der Golem, earlier golem stories and Sefer Yezira ["The Book of Creation"], anon (before 6th century). A robot, as a modern golem, is activated by incantations of magic formulae.

Townshend, Pete (UK 1945-    ) The Iron Man (1989). Libretto Townshend and David Thacker, after "The Iron Man" by Ted Hughes.

Young, Douglas (UK 1947-    ) The Tailor of Gloucester (1989). Libretto Young with John Michael Phillips, after Beatrix Potter.

Bibalo, Antonio (Italy-Norway 1922-2008) Macbeth (1990). Libretto anon, after William Shakespeare.

Döhl, Friedhelm (Germany 1936-    ) Medea (?1990). Libretto anon, after Euripides.

Einem, Gottfried von (Austria 1918-1996) Tulifant (1990). Libretto Lotte Ingrisch, after ?Tulifäntchen by Karl Immermann. The Earth, the Past, the Future, magic golden horn, earthly and unearthly spirits.

Sondheim, Stephen (US 1930-    ) Into the Woods (1990). Libretto James Lapine, after fairytales, lyric Sondheim. Most of the characters from "Little Red Riding Hood", "Cinderella" (Grimm Brothers version), "Jack the Giant Killer", "Rapunzel", "The Goose that Lays the Golden Egg", magic harp, voice of giant's wife, "Sleeping Beauty", "Snow White".

Corigliano, John (US 1938-    ) The Ghosts of Versailles (1991). Libretto William M Hoffman, partly after La mère coupable by Pierre Beaumarchais.

Monk, Meredith (US 1942-    ) Atlas (1991). Libretto ?Monk. A spirit guide, quasi-Paradise.

Buller, John (UK 1927-2004) Bakxai ["The Bacchae"] (1992) Libretto ?Buller, (mostly in Greek), after Euripides.

Dusapin, Pascal (France 1955-    ) Medeamaterial (1992). Libretto Heiner Müller, after ?Medea by Euripides. Medea in modern psychoanalytical terms.

Hersant, Philippe (France 1948-    ) Le château des Carpathes (1992). Libretto Jorge Silva-Melo, after Jules Verne.

Berkeley, Michael (UK 1948-    ) Baa Baa Black Sheep (1993). Libretto David Malouf, after The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling and "Baa Baa Black Sheep". Mowgli, Bagheera, Ka, Baloo, Akela, Grey Wolf, Punch, Mrs Punch, wolves.

Harvey, Jonathan (UK 1939-2012) Inquest of Love (1993). Libretto Harvey with David Rudkin. Life after death.

Xenakis, Iannis (Greece-France 1922-2001) Les Bacchantes ["The Bacchae"] (1993). Libretto anon, after Euripides.

Zender, Hans (Germany 1936-    ) Don Quijote de la Mancha ["Don Quixote of La Mancha"] (1993). Libretto Zender, after Cervantes. Devil, angel, magician (Merlin), ghost (oracle).

Butler, Martin (UK 1960-    ) Craig's Progress (1994). Libretto Stephen Pruslin. Gingerbread witch, Santa Claus, gods, reindeer, planets, comics superheroes.

Firsova, Elena (Russia-UK 1950-    ) The Nightingale and the Rose (1994). Libretto anon, after The Nightingale and the Rose by Oscar Wilde and Christina Rossetti.

Mason, Benedict (UK 1953-    ) Playing Away (1994). Libretto Howard Brenton. The Faust story transferred to football.

Moran, Robert (US 1937-    ) The Dracula Diary (1994). Libretto James Skofield, after Vampire legend. (See also Philip Glass 1985.)

Goehr, Alexander (UK 1932-    ) Arianna ["Ariadne"] (1995). Libretto Ottavio Rinuccini, after Ovid. Venus, Cupid, Bacchus, Jupiter, cupids. Ariadne and Theseus are transformed into constellations.

Schnittke, Alfred (Russia 1934-1998) Historia von D. Johann Fausten ["The History of Dr. Johann Faustus"] (1995). Libretto Jürg Morgener, after Historia vom D. Johann Fausten, dem weitbeschreyten Zauberer und Schwartzkunstler (Faustbuch). See Faust. [HD]

further reading: The Complete Opera Book by Gustav Kobbé (1918; rev vt by Earl of Harewood as Kobbé's Complete Opera Book; various editions; much cut as The Pocket Kobbé's Opera Book by Earl of Harewood 1994); L'opera; repertorio della lirica dal 1597 (1977; trans as Phaidon Book of the Opera: A Survey of 780 Operas from 1597 1979); Handbuch der russischen und sowjetischen Oper (1985) by Sigrid Neef; Gänzl's Book of the Musical Theatre (1988) by Kurt Gänzl and Andrew Lamb; Das groáe Handbuch der Oper (1991; rev 1994) by Heinz Wagner; The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (1992 4 vols) ed Stanley Sadie; The Viking Opera Guide (1993; much cut vt The Penguin Guide to Opera 1995) ed Amanda Holden; International Dictionary of Opera (1993 2 vols) ed C Steven LaRue.

This entry is taken from the Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1997) edited by John Clute and John Grant. It is provided as a reference and resource for users of the SF Encyclopedia, but apart from possible small corrections has not been updated.